Wednesday, 1 January 2014

शशिप्रभा शास्त्री: व्यक्तित्व एवं कृतित्व


vfuy dqekj

       fgUnh ysf[kdkvksa esa ^'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h* dh x.kuk mu dFkkdkjksa esa gksrh gS ftUgksaus vk/kqfud thou dh Åc] NViVkgV] la=kl vkSj vdsysiu dh fLFkfr dks vuqHkwfr ds Lrj ij igpkuk vkSj O;Dr fd;k gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd mudh jpukvksa esa ,d vksj vk/kqfudrk dk izcy Loj feyrk gS rks nwljh vksj muds }kjk jfpr izlaxksa rFkk laosnukvksa ds lkFk gj oxZ dk ikBd rknkRe; dk vuqHko djrk gSA budh jpukvksa dks i<+dj ikBdksa dks ;g izlax vius thou esa dgha u dgha tqM+rk gqvk izrhr gksrk gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh d`fr;ksa dks i<+dj muds ,oa mudh ys[ku laca/kh Kku gksrk gSA muds O;fDrRo ,oa d`frRo ds lEcU/k esa foLrkjiwoZd ppkZ vxzfyf[kr gSA

1-'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h % O;fDrRo
tUe ,oa tUe LFkku& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h efgyk dFkkdjkas esa ls ,d gSaA ^'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk tUe mrj izns'k ds esjB uxj esa vxLr] 1923 esa gqvk FkkA*1
ifjokj& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds firk dk uke ckcw eqdqUn eqjkjh yky FkkA tks is'ks ls odhy FksA ekrk fonq"kh /kkfeZd izo`fr dh efgyk FkhaA buds iq= dk uke MkW0 uhykHk gSA buds ifr MkW0 /keZsUnzukFk 'kkL=h FksA MkW0 /kesZUnzukFk 'kkL=h Mh0,0oh0 dkWyst esa jhMj in ij laLd`r foHkkx ds v/;{k jgsA 'kkL=h th dk fir` ifjokj fnYyhoklh jgk] ij fookgksijkUr mUgsa nsgjknwu dks gh viuk fuokl LFkku cukuk iM+kA
f'k{kk ,oa O;olk;& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh f'k{kk nh{kk dk {ks= vf/kdrj fnYyh fo'ofo|ky; jgkA ogha ls mUgksaus laLd`r rFkk fgUnh esa ,e0,0 dh ijh{kk,¡ mrh.kZ dhaA bUgksaus ih&,p0Mh0 dh mikf/k tks/kiqj fo'ofo|ky; ls yhA buds 'kks/k izcU/k dk 'kh"kZd% ^fgUnh ds ikSjkf.kd ukVdksa ds ewy lzksr* gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h fookgksijkUr ih th dkWyst esa izoDrk in ij lq'kksfHkr jghA
ys[kdh; izsj.kk& MkW0 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dks Nk=koLFkk ls gh lkfgR; esa #fp FkhA fookg ls iwoZ og NqViqV dfork,¡] x| dkO; fy[kk djrh FkhaA fookg&mijkUr dqN o"kksZ ds fy;s og lc NwV x;kA fdUrq dqN le; ckn ogh vadqj iqu% gfjr gks x;sA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh vkjfEHkd d`fr ,d dgkuh Fkh ^byk* tks ^lfjrk* esa izdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA mlh ds lekukUrj ,d nwljh dgkuh ^migkj* gksf'k;kjiqj ds oSfnd laLFkku ls izdkf'kr gksus okyh if=dk fo'oT;ksfr esa NihA
iqjLdkj ,oa lEeku& ^MkW0 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dks lu~ 1999 esa egkiafMr jkgqy lkaLd`rk;u iqjLdkj feykA*2 ys[kd dks lkfgR;dkj dh Js.kh esa ykus esa dksbZ fof'k"V jpuk gh ek/;e curh gSaA loZizFke budk miU;kl ^ukoas* /kkjkokfgd :i ls ^/keZ;qx* if=dk esa izdkf'kr gqvkA rRi'pkr~ budk miU;kl ^ddZ js[kk* Hkh dkQh pfpZr gqvkA ^lhf<+;k¡* rFkk ^ijNkb;ksa ds ihNs* miU;kl ij mrj izns'k ljdkj }kjk bUgsa iqjLd`r fd;k x;kA ftlds dkj.k 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dks lkfgR; txr~ esa fo'ks"k igpku feyhA
e`R;q& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh e`R;q ds ckjs esa dgha Hkh dksbZ mYys[k ugha feyrk gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk vafre dgkuh ladyu rygVh gS] tks mudh e`R;q ds ckn lu~ 2002 esa izdkf'kr gqvk gSA bl vk/kkj ij dgk tk ldrk gS fd 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh e`R;q lu~ 2001 ds vklikl gqbZ FkhA
2-'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h % d`frRo
fdlh Hkh ys[kd ds O;fDrRo dh igpku mlds d`frRo ds vk/kkj ij dh tk ldrh gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh d`fr;k¡ lPpkbZ] lgkuqHkwfr vkSj ekuoh;rk ls vksrizksr gSaA mudh d`fr;ksa dk iz/kku fo"k; gS ukjh txr~ ;k ukjh ân;A ?kqek&fQjk dj mudh gj d`fr ukjh dks dsUnz esa j[kdj gh vxzlj gksrh gS] fQj pkgs og ;qorh gks] ckfydk gks] iRuh gks ;k izs;lh] dHkh&dHkh rks cw<+h nknh ;k lkl HkhA ukjh thou ls 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h iwjh rjg ls tqM+h gqbZ gSaA ukjh dh eukso`fr] ifjos'k vkSj iz'u dh xgjkbZ rd ysf[kdk us igq¡pus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds 'kCnksa esa] ^;s dgkfu;k¡ dgkuh esjs euks}sx vkSj izfrfØ;k dk lgh&lgh nLrkost gSA*3 vf/kdka'k dgkfu;ksa esa mu ukfj;ksa dk fp=.k gS ftuds eu&izk.k Hkkjrh; laLd`fr ds ewY;ksa ls tqM+s gq, gSaA mUgksaus rks ukfj;ksa dks vius ifr ;k lkl dks ;s dgkfu;k¡ i<+okus dh lykg nh gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us x| lkfgR; ds fodkl esa egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku fn;k gSA bUgksaus x| lkfgR; esa miU;kl vkSj dgkfu;k¡ gh fy[kh gSa ftudk fooj.k bl izdkj ls gS%&
miU;kl lkfgR;
      miU;kl lkfgR; esa ysf[kdk dk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku jgkA miU;kl 'kCn dh fu"ifr mi+fu+vkl+vp~ /kkrq rFkk izR;; vkfn ds ;ksx ls gqbZ gSA bl 'kCn dk o;qRifÙkyH; vFkZ gS& lehi j[kukA vktdy fgUnh esa miU;kl uked ftl fo|k dk fodkl gqvk gS og vaxzsth 'kCn ukWfoy dk i;kZ; ekuk tkrk gSA ukWfoy 'kCn bVsfy;u ds ukWosyk ls fudyk gSA dbZ fo}ku bl 'kCn dh O;qRifr ^ukol* 'kCn ls Hkh ekurs gSaA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk miU;kl lkfgR; bl izdkj ls gSa&
ohjku jkLrs vkSj >juk& ohjku jkLrs vkSj >juk 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk izFke miU;kl gSA bl miU;kl dks ysf[kdk us ghurk xzafFk ds ifjizs{; esa fy[kk gSA ;g miU;kl ml ukjh ij dsfUnzr gS tks cpiu esa gh viuh ek¡ ds vU; iq#"k ds lkFk lEcU/kksa dks ns[kdj ekufld ruko ls xqtjrh gSA vius thou dh ?kqVu vkSj dqaBk dh vfHkO;fDr og ?k`.kk ds ek/;e ls djus yxrh gSA ^vkt pkpk ds ?kj esa dne j[krs gh eSa Hkw[kh ckf?ku dh rjg mu ij VwV iMw++¡xh vkSj iwNw¡xh rqeus esjh ek¡ dh ftUnxh D;ksa cjckn dhA*4 bl miU;kl esa vpyk ghu Hkkouk ls bl gn rd f?kj tkrh gS fd og bu voS/k lEcU/kksa ds ewy ifj.kke ds fo"k; esa Hkh fopkj ughaA ,slh n'kk esa og Lo;a Hkh cnys dh Hkkouk ls dbZ iq#"kksa ds lkFk lEcU/k cukrh gSa ij varr% mldh bl ghu Hkkouk dks fudkyus gsrq 'kSysUnz mls iRuh :i esa viuk ysrk gSA ysf[kdk us bl miU;kl ds ek/;e ls ;g crkuk pkgk gS fd lekt esa ftu ifjokjksa esa bl izdkj vuSfrd lEcU/k gksrs gSa] mudh larku ij mldk izHkko vpyk ds leku gh iM+rk gSA
veyrkl& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us ^veyrkl* miU;kl esa nfer dke&okluk ds mnkÙkhdj.k :i dk o.kZu fd;k gSA bl miU;kl esa 'kkL=h th us gjnsoyky dk fp=kadu fd;k gSA og viuh iRuh dkenk dks eSlwj Hkstdj felz lqUnjh t=r csxe ls iqufoZokg dj ysrk gSA fdUrq felz lqUnjh mls NksM+dj pyh tkrh gSA bl miU;kl esa gjnso us dHkh Hkh dkenk dh xgjkbZ;ksa dks ugha le>kA ^dkenk eSa le>rk Fkk rqe cgqr lyhds okyh vkSj le>nkj gksxh ij lyhds vkSj le> ds uke ij rqEgkjk fnekx ,d ne BLl gSA rqEgsa ikbZ Hkj Hkh vdy ughaA*5 mlus dkenk dh rqyuk t=r csxe ls dh FkhA ysfdu ,d ckj gjnso ehfniqj ds ljdkjh vLirky esa iM+k gSA ysf[kdk us ,slh fLFkfr esa ukf;dk dh nqfo/kk dk cM+k ltho o.kZu fd;k gSA gjnsoyky dh ,slh fLFkfr esa dkenk us iwjs iUnzg fnu lsok dhA gjnso ds eu esa iqu% dkenk dh pkg txus yxh blls iwoZ fd og vius fny dh ckr dkenk ls dgrk dkenk mldh bPNk dks frykatfy nsrs gq, mls NksM+dj iqu% vius igys ?kj pyh tkrh gSA ysf[kdk us bl miU;kl ds ek/;e ls ;g crkuk pkgk gS fd vxj dksbZ ifr viuh iRuh dks NksM+dj iqufoZokg dj ysrk gS rks ckn esa ifr ds pkgus ij Hkh og iRuh mlds lkFk viuk thou O;rhr ugha dj ldrhA
ukosa& ukosa miU;kl nkEiR; thou esa Bgjko ds fo"k; ij fy[kk x;k gSA ukosa miU;kl ds dsUnz esa ukf;dk ekyrh gSA ftldk lEcU/k lkseth ls gSA ekyrh dh foiUurk mls lkseth ds fudV yk nsrh gSA tks mls ukSdjh fnykdj mldh enn djrk gSA lkseth fookfgr gS] ysfdu mldh enn ls izHkkfor gksdj og lkseth ds cgqr fudV vk tkrh gSA ekyrh lkseth ds brus djhc vk tkrh gS fd og xHkZorh gks tkrh gSA ,slh gkyr esa og u rks lkseth ds lkFk jg ldrh gS vkSj u gh vius ek¡&cki ds ?kj tk ldrh gSA tc og ,slh gkyr esa ?kj tkrh gS rks ?kj okys Hkh mls ?kj ls fudky nsrs gSaA ekyrh dh nqfo/kk dks 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us ltho :i ls mtkxj fd;k gSA ,d dkWyst esa og ukSdjh djus ds fy, ck/; gksrh gSA dkWyst dh fizafliy dh lykg ls og fot;s'k ls 'kknh djrh gSA ysfdu ^fot;s'k dks lc&dqN <ksuk fdruk Hkkjh iM+ jgk gSA Bhd Hkh gS tks'k&tks'k esa fot;s'k us Hkys gh oSlk dne mBk fy;k gks] ij vc iNrk jgk gksxkA*6 D;ksafd ekyrh dk eu viuh csVh esa jek gqvk gS vkSj fot;s'k dks ;g fookg blfy, djuk iM+k fd og viuh izs;lh dks ikus esa vlQy jgk FkkA 'kf'kizHkk dh miU;kl dyk esa izse lEcU/kksa dh n`f"V dk fodkl gqvk gSA og iqjkus cks/k ls NqVdkjk ikus esa ,d lhek rd lQy gksrh gSA
lhf<+;k¡& lhf<+;k¡ miU;kl MkW0 'kf'kizHkk 'kL=h dk cgq pfpZr miU;kl gSA ftlesa ysf[kdk us ,d fo/kok eu dh mgkiksg dk o.kZu fd;k gSA izLrqr miU;kl esa ukf;dk euh"kh ifr dh e`R;ksijkUr MkWDVj curh gS vkSj viuh fpfdRlk deZ dks fuHkkrh gqbZ og ,d fo/kok ejht lqi.kkZ dh ns[kHkky djrh gSA blh ns[kHkky esa nksuksa ,d nwljs ds djhc vkrh gSA lqi.kkZ viuh e`R;q dks fudV tkudj fd'kksj ckyd dh ftEesnkjh MkWDVj dks ns nsrh gSA ^euh"kh] lqdsr rsjs gh Åij gS] eq>s vkSj fdlh ij fo'okl ugha gSA opu ns] rw lqdsr dks dHkh ugha NksM+sxhA*7 mez esa dkQh vUrj gksus ij Hkh nksuksa ,d nwljs ls vkdf"kZr gksrs gSaA ij lqi.kkZ bls lgh u ekurs gq, mls i<+krh fy[kkrh gSA i<+us fy[kus ds ckn viuh ukSdjh ds fy, dkuiqj pyk tkrk gSA og mls eu ls u fudky ikus ij Hkh mldk fookg fdlh vU; ;ksX; yM+dh ls djok nsrh gSA mlds blh dk;Zdky esa MkWDVj d';i ls eqykdkr gksrh gSA vius pkgus okyksa ls lq>ko ikus ij Hkh MkW0 d';i ls fookg djus ds fy, RkS;kj ugh gksrh vkSj vius thou dks ,d fo/kok ds :i esa gh O;rhr djrh gSA okLro esa bl miU;kl esa ysf[kdk us ,d ,slh L=h dk fp= izLrqr fd;k gS tks thou ds fdUgh {k.kksa esa yM+[kM+kus rks yxrh gS ijUrq fQj viuh cqf) ls fu.kZ; ysrh gqbZ ,d lQy ukjh ds :i esa viuk mnkgj.k izLrqr djrh gSA
ijNkb;ksa ds ihNs& bl miU;kl esa nkEiR; thou ds [kks[kysiu dk fp= izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA ;g leL;k fdlh vf'kf{kr xzkeh.k L=h dh u gksdj i<+h fy[kh] ukSdjh djus okyh ^lqfe=k* dh gSA eghiky ,d 'kadkyq] LokFkhZ] dkeqd vkSj ludh fdLe dk ifr gSA ^ekyk ds isV esa vkus dh lwpuk nsus ij mlus fy[kdj Hkstk Fkk fd ;g esjh ugha gSA blds cki dks rqe ogha&dgha ,Dlpsat esa gh ryk'k djksA*8 ,slk ,d ckj ugha gqvk] lqfe=k tc mlds rhljs cPps dh ek¡ cuus okyh Fkh rc Hkh ,slk gh gqvkA nksuks esa [kwc yM+kbZ gqbZ vkSj vUr esa og nksuksa cfPp;ksa dks ysdj dgha xk;c gks x;hA vc lqfe=k ds lkeus lcls cM+k iz'u Fkk & thou fuokZg vkSj cPps dks ldq'ky tUe nsukA bl fLFkfr esa mldh enn dh mldh ek¡ dey eksfguh vkSj l[kh vkHkk usA fookg gksus ij mlus tks ukSdjh NksM+h Fkh ogha ds ckcw ukSfV;ky dh enn ls mlus iqu% ukSdjh izkIr dh vkSj ldq'ky iq= jRu dks tUe fn;kA fdUrq tc og nks lky dk gqvk rks ,d fnu eghiky fQj vk;k] lqfe=k ds izfr cM+k izse trk;k] mls vius ikl ys x;k fdUrq rhuksa cPpksa dks vius ikl jksddj mls nqRdkj dj Hkxk fn;kA lqfe=k fQj thus ds fy, ,dkdh gks x;hA iadt rk;y uked odhy us mls vk'oklu Hkh fn;k fd mls mlds cPps fey tk,¡xs] fdUrq tc rd os dkuwuh dkjZokbZ djsa] lqfe=k us eghiky ds ikl gh tkdj gj fLFkfr esa jgus dk fu.kZ; ys fy;kA ysf[kdk us bl miU;kl ds ek/;e ls ;g crkuk pkgk gS fd ^lqfe=k* vius ifr ^eghiky* }kjk ckj&ckj frjLd`r izrkfM+r gksrh gqbZ Hkh mlh ds lkFk thus ds fy, NViVkrh jgrh gS vkSj vUr esa Hkh og mlh ds lkFk jguk ilUn djrh gSA ^ijNkb;ksa dh ihNs* nkSM+us dh mldh tks izfØ;k 'kq# gqbZ Fkh og lekIr gksus dh ctk; vUrghu gks x;hA
D;ksafd& dkedkth ukjh dh vusd leL;kvksa] mudh NksVh&NksVh bPNkvksa dks cM+s lqUnj <ax ls 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us ^D;ksafd* miU;kl esa vafdr fd;k gSA miU;kl dh ukf;dk vkHkk ch0,0 rd i<+h gSA LVsuksa dk dkslZ Hkh fd;k gSA lh0Mh0,0 n¶rj esa dke djrh gSA og ,d lqy>s gq, efLr"d okys iq#"k dh iRuh gSA dkedkth ukjh ds fy, ,sls gh ifr dk gksuk vko';d gSA vU;Fkk 'kknh ds ckn ifr yksx ugha pkgrs fd mudh iRuh n¶rj ds dke djsaA vkHkk ds n¶rj esa ';kek uked ,d yM+dh dke djrh FkhA og ns[kus esa fcYdqy lqUnj ugah FkhA vkHkk lksprh Fkh fd ,slh yM+dh ls dkSu 'kknh djsxkA fdUrq tc mldh 'kknh dk fuea=.k i= vk;k rks og nax jgh x;hA ';kek dk o/kq :i ns[kdj og nax jgh x;hA ^nsg Åij ls uhps rd tsojksa ls ynh] tsoj Hkh ,d&,d bruk uQhl fd ns[krs gh vk¡[ksa QV tk,¡ chp&chp es iés iq[kjkt tM+s gq,] fu[kkfyl eksfr;ksa ds pepekrs gq, lsV&n`f"V Bgjrh gh ugha FkhA*9 vkHkk dks {k.kHkj ds fy, ,slk yxk fd dk'k ,sls tsojksa dks og viuh nsg ij j[k ikrh rks jktjkuh yxrhA ';kek dk nqYgk mlls lqUnj FkkA iwNus ij irk pyk tsojksa ds dkj.k gh rks mlus 'kknh dhA ,sls tsoj tqVkus ds fy, ';kek dh ek¡ dks viuk cM+k ?kj cspuk iM+kA viuh cnlwjr yM+dh ds fy;s yM+ds <w¡<+rs&<w¡<+rs ek¡ rax vk x;h Fkh] tks mu yksxksa us ekaxk mldh ek¡ us fn;kA ysfdu lkl&ftBkuh dh cM+h&cM+h ekaxksa dks iwjk djrs&djrs ';kek dh ek¡ dtsZ ds cks> ls yn x;hA vkSj var esa cnlwjrh ds dkj.k ';kek dks vkRegR;k djuh iM+hA  
dkedkth vkSjrksa dh ,d vkSj leL;k gS ?kjsyw ukSdjA vf/kdka'k cM+s uxjksa esa ?kjsyw ukSdj ds fy, fdlh igkM+h yM+ds dks j[k fy;k tkrk gSA mls jgus ds fy;s LFkku] pk;] uk'rk vkSj Hkkstu fn;k tkrk gSA ysfdu ;g ukSdj Hkjksls ds yk;d ugha gksrsA ,d fnu nw/kokys j?kq us crk;k fd mudk ukSdj izfrfnu ,d gh yhVj nw/k ykrk gS] vkHkk vkSj nhid ijs'kku gks x,A os rks izfrfnu ch: dks Ms<+ yhVj nw/k ds iSls nsrs FksA iwNus ij ch: dk O;ogkj vkHkk vkSj nhid ds izfr vPNk ugh FkkA mUgksaus ch# dks ?kj ls fudky fn;kA vkHkk n¶rj esa tkdj Hkh ch: ds fy, ijs'kku Fkh D;ksafd og lksp jgh Fkh fd mlds cPps ?kj esa vdsys dSls jgsaxsA mls n¶rj esa Hkh vkjke u feykA
ijlksa ds ckn& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk mDr miU;kl ekrk&firk ls vyx gqbZ ,d NksVh lh ckfydk dh leL;kvksa ds bnZ&fxnZ ?kwerk gSA miU;kl dh cky ukf;dk eqéksa dh igyh o"kZxkaB ij mlds nknk foØeth vkSj nknh pUnzkth vius 'kgj ls bruh nwj fnYyh pys vkrs gSaA mUgksaus eqéksa ds fy, ,d Ýkd ykbZ Fkh muds eu esa Fkk fd eqéksa gekjh ykbZ gqbZ Ýkd dks igudj cgqr lqUnj yxsxhA ysfdu fnYyh igq¡pdj mUgsa irk pyrk gS fd muds csVs us eqéksa dk tUefnu ,d fnu igys gh euk fy;k Fkk] D;ksafd 'kadj dks vkSj NqVV~h ugha FkhA 'kadj us igys gh chekj gksus ds dkj.k pkj Nqfê;k¡ yh FkhA ekrk&firk ds ?kj vkus ij Hkh og ,d fnu ugha #d ldrk FkkA mldh nknh us ns[kk fd eqéksa eqgYys dh eaxyrkbZ ds lkFk dkQh ?kqyh feyh FkhA 'kadj dks VªkalQj dk lUns'k feyrk gSA 'kadj vius ifjokj dks vius lkFk ugha ys tk ldrkA ^vius va'k dks vius ls foyx dj] ckgj Hkst nsus dh okLrfod fLFkfr dks >syus dk {k.k vc vk;k FkkA*10 'kadj ds dgus ij nknh eqéksa dks vius lkFk ys tkrh gS blh chp nknh vkSj eqéksa ds chp Lusg gks tkrk gSA ysfdu ,d fnu eqéksa dks vius ekrk&firk ds lkFk fons'k tkuk gksrk gSA ^lk<+s pkj cjl dh uUgha eqéksa ds psgjs ij bl le; ?kuh izkS<+rk Nk x;h fn[krh FkhA*11 eqéksa tkurh gS fd nknh mlds fcuk ugh jg ldrh blhfy, og ?kj ls fudyus ls igys gh lks tkrh gSA bl rjg eqéksa lksrs&lksrs gh fonk gks x;hA miU;kl dk vUr eu ij xgjk izHkko Mkyrk gSA ;g miU;kl ckyeuksfoKku ij [kjk mrjrk gSA
;s NksVs egk;q)& ek¡&csVh ds chp dh rdjkj dks ysdj bruh xgjkbZ ls vkt rd fdlh ys[kd ;k ysf[kdk us ,d lkS ipiu i`"Bksa dk miU;kl ugha fy[kkA bl fo"k; dks ysdj igyh ckj izLrqr jpuk esa 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us de ls de ?kVukvksa dks ysdj bruh ckjhdh ls dye pyk;h gS fd ikBd igys rks peRd`r gksrk gS ckn esa I;kt ds fNydksa dh rjg irksZ ij ijrsa mrkjrs&mrkjrs mls jksuk vkrk gSA ek¡ xkxhZ dk O;ogkj ikBdksa ds fy, bruk vlá gks tkrk gS fd yksik ds ?kj esa mldh mifLFkfr og cnkZ'r ugha dj ikrsA ek¡ xkxhZ dk ,d csVk rFkk rhu csfV;k¡ FkhA ekrk xkxhZ dk viuh cgw csVs ls O;ogkj vPNk ugh Fkk bl dkj.k og viuh NksVh csVh yksik ds lkFk mlds ?kj ij jgrh FkhA ek¡ xkxhZ viuh iq=h yksik ,oa mlds NksVs ls ifjokj dks vius O;ogkj ls cgqr ijs'kku djrh FkhA ^'kCnkas ds pkcqd vlyh pkcqd ls dgha xgjh ekj djrs gSa] ckr fny dks Nsnrh pyh tkrh gSA*12 ,d ckj xkxhZ viuh ukfru dks jaMh dgrh gSA xkxhZ ds bl rjg ds O;ogkj ls yksik ds ifr dks xqLlk vkrk gSA og viuh lkl dks vius ?kj ls fudky nsrk gSA xkxhZ ?kj ls fudyus ds ckn vukFkkJe esa jgus yxhA yksik ds ifr dk rcknyk gks tkrk gS vkSj yksik vius ifr ls dg dj ek¡ xkxhZ dks vius ?kj cqyk ysrh gSA vius vfUre fnuksa esa ek¡ xkxhZ dks lnhZ esa Luku djus ls fueksfu;k¡ gks x;k vkSj yksik ds dU/ks ij flj j[kdj og ges'kk ds fy, lks x;hA bl miU;kl esa 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us vius <ax dk vyx pfj= igyh ckj gekjs lEeq[k j[kk gSA
mez ,d xfy;kjs dh& ^mez ,d xfy;kjs dh* miU;kl iki&iq.; ds nk;js ls gVdj ifr&iRuh vkSj iszfedk ds lEcU/k ds vk/kkj ij fy[kk x;k gSA ukf;dk lquUnk uoy ds iRuhRo dk Hkkj <ksrs gq, vius vki ij tqYe djrh jghA ,slk yxrk Fkk fd vU; ukf;dkvksa dh rjg lquUnk Hkh lkjs tqYe lgrh tk,xh ijUrq ,slk ugha gksrkA vkuUn izkfIr ds gsrq iki&iq.; dh [kks[kyh ekU;rkvksa dks Bksdj ekjdj og viuh ftUnxh vius <ax ls thus dk iz;kl djrh gSA pfj= ij vius fopkj Fkksius ds ctk, mls vius <ax ls thus dk volj ysf[kdk us vius ik= lquUnk dks igyh ckj fn;k gSA igyh ckj 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us viuh ukf;dk dks cksYM cuus fn;k gSA
eaftyksa ds Åij& ^lkfjdk* uoEcj] 1989 esa 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh miU;kfldk ^eaftyksa ds Åij* NihA miU;kfldk esa 21 cjl ckn ifr }kjk tcju fdlh dks fcuk jle ds xksn fn, x;s iq= dh [kkst esa ukf;dk tkrh gSA bl dF; ds ek/;e ls ukjh&txr ds mu reke igyqvksa dks ysf[kdk us gekjs lkeus j[kk gS] ft/kj vU; ysf[kdkvksa dk /;ku ugha gSA bl miU;kfldk dks oLrqfu"B cukus ds fy, mUgksaus ik=ksa ds ukeksa dks lEiw.kZ u fy[kdj vkjfEHkd v{kjksa dks fy[kk gSA blh ;k=k ds le; mUgksaus Ýsap ysf[kdk cwovk dh ^eseks;lZ vkWQ v M;wVhQqy MkWVj* dks i<+k FkkA cwovk dh thouljf.k us mUgsa csgn izHkkfor fd;k FkkA blfy, tgkW fpUru ds {k.k vk;s ysf[kdk cwovk ds lkFk ekufld Lrj ij tqM+ tkrh gSaA
      'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds miU;kl ehukjsa] [kkeks'k gksrs loky] gj fnu gfrgkl izkIr ugha gksrsA ysfdu ;g rhuksa miU;kl 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds gh gSaA
dgkuh laxzg
       dgkuh dh dgkuh fpj iqjkuh gSA vkykspd bldk lEcU/k vkfn ekuo ls tksM+rs gSaA izkphu dky esa dgkuh ds LFkku ij ^dFkk* 'kCn dk iz;ksx gksrk FkkA vk/kqfud fgUnh dgkuh fo"k;] Hkko] mís'; vkSj 'kSyh dh n`f"V ls izkphu dFkk ls fHkUu vkSj vaxjsth dh LVksjh ls vf/kd fudV gSA 'kkL=h dk dgkuh ladyu bl izdkj ls gSA
/kqyh gqbZ 'kke& ^/kqyh gqbZ 'kke* dgkuh laxzg esa ianzg dgkfu;k¡ gSA ftuds 'kh"kZd&my>u] [kqyh iydsa] bruh lh ckr] rirh gqbZ /kwi dh pk¡nuh] vUrjax] ,d o"kZ ,d xk¡B] chp dh dfM+;k¡] ik;rkus ysVk gqvk lq[k] rV ds ca/ku] LVS.MMZ] le>kSrk bR;kfn gSaA fgUnh dh ftu ubZ dgkuh&ysf[kdkvksa us fgUnh i=&if=dkvksa ds ikBdksa dk /;ku vkd`"V fd;k gS] muesa lqJh 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk uke vU;re gSA ^/kqyh gqbZ 'kke* mudk igyk izdkf'kr dgkuh laxzg gSA mudh dgkfu;ksa dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk;sa gSa lPpkbZ] lgkuqHkwfr vkSj ekuoh;rkA
^jkstjkst rqEgkjs nnZ vkSj chekfj;ksa dks lqurk Fkk] rks viuh chekjh vius nnZ dh ckr lquk&lquk dj rqEgsa ihfM+r dSls djrk \*14 muds fp=.k dk iz/kku fo"k; gS ukjh txr~ ;k ukjh ân;A bl ukjh dks ysf[kdk fuR;izfr ds i;Zos{k.k ls tkurh gS vkSj vkUrfjd lg~&osnu ls Hkh] loZ= og mls lgkuqHkwfr ls ns[krh&fpf=r djrh gS vkSj ekuoh;r ls & blhfy, bl laxzg esa loZ= ekuoh;rk] eerk vkSj Lusg dk Loj eq[kj gSA oSls dqN fLFkfr;k¡ ftudh ysf[kdk us ifjdYiuk dh gS] cM+h foLQksVd vkSj Økafrdkjh laHkkoukvksa dk ladsr nsrh gSA vius vuqHko ds nk;js esa jgrs gq, ysf[kdk us ukjh uked ;a= ds lw{ere dy&iqtksZa dk ifjp; ns ikrh gS] vkSj og vUrn`f"ZV ,oa foosd Hkh] tks uj&ukjh ds tfVy lEcU/kksa dks lQy&lq[kn cuk ldrk gSA
vuqÙkfjr& MkW0 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us bl dgkuh laxzg dks 151 i`"Bksa esa fy[kk gSA bl dgkuh laxzg esa rsjg dgkfu;k¡ gSA ftuds 'kh"kZd bl izdkj ls gS & vuqÙkfjr xzksFk] ,d f=dks.k dh rhu eNfy;k¡] fØ;k&izfrfØ;k] ihf<+;k¡] pksV ds uhps] fcLrj] xqCckjs dh yk'k] cSy] VwVh gqbZ ydhjksa dh /kwy] ?kkVs dh ydhjsa] xzfUFk;k¡ vkSj dSaph] bYyr vkfnA bu dgkfu;ksa esa ls vuqÙkfjr dgkuh esa ^lR;kFkZ izdk'k* i<+dj viuh csVh dks mlh dk;ns dkuwu ds vk/kkj ij pyus dh lh[k nsus okyh ek¡ Hkh dqN&dqN LFkkuksa ij dSls ^vuqÙkfjr* gks tkrh gS] dk vadu ysf[kdk us cM+s gh ;FkkZFk <ax ls fd;k gSA euh"kk us ^lR;kFkZ izdk'k* dk xHkkZ/kku laLdkj okyk ifjPNsn tc vVd&vVddj vkjEHk fd;k rc mls ^ukfldk ls ukfldk] eq[k ls eq[k] ,d nwljs ds lkeus vO;ofLFkr*15 okyk ekeyk le> esa ugha vk;k rc ek¡ us mls nks&rhu i`"B NksM+dj i<+us ds fy, dgkA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds bl dgkuh laxzg es ftruh Hkh dgkfu;k¡ gS mu dgkfu;ksa dk fo"k; gS ukjh txr ;k ukjh ân;A bl laxzg dh gj dgkuh ukjh dks dsUnz esa j[kdj fy[kh xbZ gSA
nks dgkfu;ksa ds chp& fgUnh dFkk lkfgR; dks le`)iw.kZ cukus esa 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku gSA budh izfr"Bk dk dsUnzfcUnq ^nks dgku;ksa ds chp* dgkuh laxzg gSA ftlesa ewyr% ukjh thou dk gh fp=.k gqvk gSA ^vxjcÙkh* dgkuh Lo;a vxjcÙkh cuh gqbZ ,oa mlh rjg /khjs&/khjs lqyxrh gqbZ Hkwih ds thou dh osnukiw.kZ eeZLi'khZ dgkuh FkhA ^Bgjko* ds l:ik dh csgn O;Lr ftUnxh dk rkuk&ckuk gSA ^e;kZfnr&la;fer& lhfer&fØ;kRed :i ls Hkkoukvksa dks O;Dr djus dh t:jr l:ik us 'kk;n dHkh eglwl ugha dhA*16 ^dkQwj*] ^u;k lalkj*] ^xU/k*] ^vfrfjDr*] ^Ý.kh* esa I;kj ds igyw dks VVksyus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA ^ek¡ ugha gw¡* dgkuh ekr`Roghu cU/;k ukjh thou ds ân; dh O;Fkk dh d#.kre dgkuh gSA ^nks dgkfu;ksa ds chp* dgkuh oS/kO; thou dh dVq okLrfodrkvksa dks eu esa Nqik,a JhekSlh dh osnukiw.kZ fLFkfr dks izLrqr djrh gSA
tksM+ ckdh& ^tksM+ ckdh* dgkuh laxzg esa ukS dgkfu;ka ladfyr gSA ^tksM+ ckdh* dgkuh laxzg dk 'kh"kZd Hkys gh xf.kr 'kkL= ls fy;k gks] ijUrq thou thus ds fy;s bl xf.kr dk cM+k egRo gSA ^vFkZ dh n`f"V ls lkspus dh mldh mez gks x;h Fkh 'kk;nA*17 ^D;k ik;k D;k [kks;k* bldk fglkc gj fdlh ds fnekx esa pyrk jgrk gSA ^lgkjs dh ;kruk* dgkuh dk uk;d tks ;kruk Hkksx jgk gS mldk dkj.k iRuh vkSj mlds ?kjokyksa dk lgkjk gS tks mlus fdlh le; fy;k FkkA ^jk[k gks pqdk le;* vkt ds Nk=ksa ds xSj ftEesnkjh ij gSA vkt dk fo|kFkhZ viuk dke fudkyrk gS vkSj fQj eqM+dj Hkh ugha ns[krkA
ir>M+& 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us bl dgkuh laxzg dks 148 i`"Bksa esa fy[kk gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds bl dgkuh laxzg esa Ng yEch dgkfu;k¡ lax`ghr gSaA ir>M+ dgkuh esa dgk x;k gS fd lÙkj vLlh djksM+ vkcknh okys bl fo'kky ns'k esa ;fn lewps yksx i<+s&fy[ks gksrs rks vkt gekjk ns'k phu tkiku dh rjg izxfr djrkA ekyh jkegsr dks dkMZ u i<+ ikus ls] vius cPps dh gM~Mh VwVus dk irk g¶rksa ugha yxrk vfirq rqjUr yxrkA blh mís'; dks ysdj gekjs ns'k esa ^izkS<+&f'k{kk&izf'k{k.k&f'kfoj* dk vk;kstu dj f'kf{kr ;qok oxZ ls muds thou dk ,d o"kZ lefiZr djus dh vihysa dh x;haA ^psruk tSlh dbZ ;qofr;k¡ Fkh ftUgksaus ch-,- dj iwjs pkj&pkj lky csxkjh esa fcrk;s FksA izkS<+&f'k{kk ds izfr eu esa tks'k&[kjks'k&vuqjkx rks ckn esa txk Fkk & de ls de ,d o"kZ ds fy, gh lgh nks lkS :i;s rks feysaxs] D;k cqjk gSA ns'kHkfDr [kkrs esa gks tk,xhA*18 ;s dgkfu;k¡ ek= dgkfu;k¡ u gksdj le; ds cM+s nLrkost gSa & orZeku lkekftd vO;oLFkk] foalxfr;ksa vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj ds uXu nLrkost & fo'kky <wg] tks dFkkik= vkSj rnuqlkj ikBd ds eu dks Hkhrj gh Hkhrj vkgr cukrs gq, mldks {kr~&fo{kr djrs jgrs gSaA
,d VqdM+k 'kkafrjFk& bl dgkuh laxzg esa lksyg dgkfu;k¡ ladfyr gSaA mu dgkfu;ksa ds 'kh"kZd& jkLrk] ry?kj esa] xqcan] nq'euh dh ckrsa] dke #drk gS] Qklys mtkys ds] Vkaxksa ls c¡/kh vk¡[ksa cuke dckM+] ,d vkSj ,d] ,d VqdM+k 'kkafrjFk] gR;kvksa dk LoxZ] yq¡t] Nrjh vkfnA blesa ls ^,d VqdM+k 'kkafrjFk* dgkuh esa ftUnxh dh vkik/kkih] ekj/kkM+ vkSj fiNM+siu ls =Lr gks O;fDr 'kkafr dh ,d NksVh lh >yd ek= ikus ds fy, ykykf;r gks mBrk gS] ij ;g ykylk mls fdruh eg¡xh iM+rh gS] vkSj bl O;Fkk dks ysf[kdk us fdruk djhc ls tkuk gS] blh dk vadu ^,d VqdM+k 'kkafrjFk* esa fd;k gSA
ml fnu Hkh& MkW0 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us bl dgkuh laxzg dks 124 i`"Bksa esa fy[kk gSA ;s dgkfu;k¡ dF; vkSj 'kSyh esa lk/kkj.k fn[krh gqbZ Hkh ekufld m}sxksa dh mBk&iVd dks la;fer dj mUgsa ,d pkeRdkfjd vkdkj nsus esa og iw.kZ l{ke gSA ,d uUgha lh vifjfpr&lh Hkkouk dks ,d foLr`r vkSj Li`g.kh; :i nsus esa 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh dye dks ,d fof'k"V egkjr gkfly gSA bl n`f"V ls ;g dgkfu;k¡ ubZ Hkh gSa vkSj viuh xgjkbZ vkSj ckjhdh ls ânry dks Hkhrj rd cha/kus okyh HkhA
rygVh& rygVh 'kkL=h dk vafre dgkuh laxzg gSA ;g dgkuh laxzg 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh e`R;q ds i'pkr~ lu~ 2002 esa izdkf'kr gqvkA
;k=ko`Ùk&
;k=ko`Ùk dks x| lkfgR; Js.kh esa j[kk tkrk gSA ;k=ko`Ùk esa gesa fdlh O;fDr ;k fdlh LFkku ds ;k=k o`rkar dh tkudkjh feyrh gSA blls gesa ml LFkku ds [kku&iku] jgu&lgu] os'k&Hkw"kk ;k ?kVuk bR;kfn dh tkudkjh feyrh gSA 'kkL=h us Hkh ,d ;k=ko`r fy[kk gS ftldk o.kZu bl izdkj ls gSA
lkxj ikj dk lalkj& MkW0 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us ^lkxj ikj dk lalkj* ;k=ko`Ùk dks 157 i`"Bksa dk fy[kk gSA vusd ys[kksa] dgkfu;ksa vkSj ,d egRoiw.kZ iqLrd ^lkxj ikj dk lalkj*] tks vkSiU;kfld 'kSyh ij fy[kk gqvk ;k=ko`rkUr gS] bl izdkj ;g miU;kl Hkh gS vkSj ;k=ko`r HkhA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h ds iq= MkW0 uhykHk] dSyhQksfuZ;k bULVhV~;wV vkWQ VsDukWyksth] iSlhMhuk esa ,d oSKkfud ds :i esa cjlksa ls dk;Zjr gSaA viuh ysf[kdk ek¡ dks vius ikl cqykdj u;k ns'k fn[kkus dh mudh bPNk dks lu~ 1986 esa 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us iwjk fd;kA vius thou ds rhu lkS cklB fnu vkSj jkrsa ysf[kd us ogk¡ fcrk;hA os ;knsa fnekx esa ls dgha ljd u tk,¡] blfy, mUgksaus bls 'kCnc) djuk pkgkA mlh ds QyLo:i ^lkxj ikj dk lalkj* d`fr dk fuekZ.k gqvk gSA ^lQkbZ dh n`f"V ls ;g ns'k vn~Hkqr gS] lM+d rd ij dgha ,d dkxt dh drju ugha fn[kkbZ nsrhA*18 vejhdk ds iz[;kr i;ZVu ds {ks=ksa dks] ogk¡ ds LoPNUn ,oa deZB L=h&iq#"kksa dks ns[krs gq, Hkh vius ns'k dks ysf[kdk Hkwyh ugha gSA mls vius ns'k dh cqjkbZ;k¡ D;ksa u gks] ckj&ckj ;kn vkrh gSaA ;g ;k=k o.kZu dh vis{kk miU;kl vkSiU;kfld d`fr vf/kd gSA
cky&lkfgR;
      cky lkfgR; ls rkRi;Z ,sls lkfgR; ls gS tks cPpksa ds fy, fy[kk x;k gksA bldks fy[kus ds fy, cPpksa ds ekufld Lrj dk /;ku j[kuk vR;Ur vko';d gSA tks cPpksa dh dksey Hkkoukvksa vkSj laosnukvksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj lkfgR; l`tu djrk gS ogha ,d lQy lkfgR;dkj dgk tk ldrk gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h us cky lkfgR; esa dgkfu;k¡ vkSj miU;kl fy[ks gSa ftudk fooj.k bl izdkj ls gSA lqugjk] xksHkh ds Qwy] vkleku dh est] iqy ds ikj ,oa Qwy vkSj liuk bR;kfnA
fu"d"kZ& fu"d"kZ :i esa dgk tk ldrk gS fd 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dk dFkk lkfgR; ewyr% lekt lkis{k gSA J`axkj] izse] rFkk 'kks"k.k ds izfr rhoz vkØks'k dk Hkko muds DFkk lkfgR; dh ewy psruk gSA 'kf'kizHkk 'kkL=h dh d`fr;k¡ lPpkbZ] lgkuqHkwfr vkSj ekuoh;rk ls vksrizksr gSaA mudh d`fr;ksa dks i<+dj irk pyrk gS fd mudh d`fr;ksa dk iz/kku fo"k; gS ukjh txr~ ;k ukjh ân;A ?kqek&fQjk dj mudh gj d`fr ukjh dks dsUnz esa j[kdj gh vxzlj gksrh gS] fQj pkgs og ;qorh gks] ckfydk gks] iRuh gks ;k izs;lh] dHkh&dHkh cw<+h nknh ;k lkl HkhA ukjh thou ls 'kkL=h th iwjh rjg tqM+h gqbZ gSA mudh ukfj;k¡ vius gh ns'k dh vkSj gekjs vklikl dh gSaA mudh gj leL;k dks mUgksaus izekf.kdrk ls igpku dj] izlax ds vuqlkj izLrqr fd;k gSA
lUnHkZ xzUFk&
1-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] fgUnh ysf[kdk] MCY;w MCY;w MCY;w-xwxy-dke-
2-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] fgUnh ysf[kdk] MCY;w MCY;w MCY;w-xwxy-dke-
3-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ,d VqdM+k 'kkafrjFk] izfrHkk izfr"Bku] ubZ fnYyh] 1991 i`0 7
4-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ohjku jkLrs vkSj >juk] fgUn ikWdsV cqDl] fnYyh] 1968 i`0 13
5-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] veyrkl] iwoksZn; izdk'ku] fnYyh] 1973] i`0 26
6-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ukosa] jktdey izdk'ku] fnYyh] 1974 i`0 49
7-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] lhf<+;k¡] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1976] i`0 8
8-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ijNkb;ksa ds ihNs] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1979 i`0 69
9-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] D;ksafd] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1980 i`0 03
10-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ijlksa ds ckn] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1983 i`0 41
11-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ijlksa ds ckn] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1983 i`0 153
12-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ;s NksVs egk;q)] jktdey izdk'ku] fnYyh] 1988] i`0 106-
13-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] /kqyh gqbZ 'kke] lkfgR; lnu] nsgjknwu] 1969] i`0 27-
14-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] vuqÙkfjr] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1975 i`0 11-
15-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] nks dgkfu;ksa ds chp] us'kuy ifCyf'kax gkÅl] u;h fnYyh] 1978] i`0 23-
16-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] tksM+ ckdh] ijkx izdk'ku] 'kkgnjk] 1981] i`0 62-
17-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] ir>M+] fdrkc?kj] u;h fnYyh] 1988 i`0 144-
18-'kkL=h] 'kf'kizHkk] lkxj ikj dk lalkj] i`0 13-
vfuy dqekj
'kks/k Nk=] fgUnh foHkkx]

nf{k.k Hkkjr fgUnh izpkj lHkkA

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