Research Scholar, Deptt. Of Commerce/Management
V. B. S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur (U.P.)
Advertisement, which is a crux of any market economy, plays a pivotal role in the economic progress of a nation. Even the erstwhile socialist nations no longer consider advertisement as a taboo rather they are veering round to the view that it is an indispensable component of any sales promotion measure with its benefit spreading over a long period of time. Advertising is indeed the only direct method which helps to reach masses of potential buyers. Advertising, being dynamic, changes with changing methods of distribution and consumption. Advertisements have become the part of life for everyone as a listener through some media or other. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements plays a major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and also the consumption pattern of the society in general. Thus, the impact leads to cultural and social changes to a great extent. Under this situation, efficacy of the manufacturers, marketers and advertisers is tested in churning out advertisements, matching the expectations of the consumers, which may gradually bring about desired attitudinal changes in them.
Need for Advertisement- Advertisement plays a major role in every walk of life. The divergent sections of the society may need advertisement for a variety of reasons from information sharing to consumer persuasion to decision making. The paramount reasons which may necessitate the use of advertisements may be:
(i) Advertising is a way of communicating information to the consumer which enables him or her to compare and choose from the products and services available. Advertisement enables consumer to exercise their rights of free choice.
(ii) Advertising is the most economical means by which a manufacturer on an Institutional body can communicate to an audience whether to sell a product or promote a cause of social welfare such as a civic drive.
(iii) Advertising, being a necessary means of communication is an inseparable part of free speech.Any restriction on the right to recommended legitimate goods, services or ideas in public will diminish the fundamental right of the freedom of speech.
(iv) Advertising is an essential and integral to the marketing system. It is sometimes maintained that the marketing system is nothing but the consequence of a country's social and economic growth. The fact is that advertising is the main key tool used to a country's growth.
Essentials of Effective Advertisement- The measure of any advertisement is its effectiveness in reaching out to the consumers; there are a few agreed principles which govern the effectiveness of an advertisement. Some of the principles, which are the key ingredients, have been dealt here.
Importance of Claim- The most important factor determining the effectiveness of an advertisement is the importance of claim made in it. Many advertisements make important claims. But these claims should be important for the consumer too. If a buyer gives importance for quality, there is no point in speaking about the cheap price, similarly if cheap price is important the advertisement should highlight only that. Nowadays advertisement agencies concentrate on USP, i.e., unique selling proposition. Each advertisement must make a strong factual claim to pull the consumer into the store to buy.
Believable- This can be incorporated in many ways. One way is to quote facts and figures about tests proving your claim. However, negatively speaking, the advertisements should not mention anything unbelievable.Sometimes advertisement given in prestigious magazines is believed by the readers.
Uniqueness- The advertisement itself must have something unique about it. Uniqueness draws attention. According to the four fold principle of AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire and Action-buying), It is a mistake to depend entirely on uniqueness. It should be followed by proper claims, and believability. Typically advertisement whose major objective is to gain brand recognition and acceptance rather than gaining conviction or buying action rely on uniqueness.
Repetition- Repetition is one of the key concepts of advertising. It is better to have a long series of small advertisement than one extremely long advertisement. Repetition is a basic principle of memory. Naturally, the more times an advertisement is run, the more likely it is that any person has seen one of the advertisements recently. Repetition and regency are usually closely related. In fact, an advertisement is better read upon repeating.
Situations Favouring Advertisement- It is imperative that the situation must be ripe for an advertisement to bear the fruits of optimum return or reward. The advertiser must constantly assess the situation to choose the right environment and ideal time for an advertisement to be launched. The conditions favouring an advertisement are as follows:
Ø When there is a favourable primary demand of particular product.
Ø When there is a distinctive product differentiation from other competitive brands.
Ø When mass market is penetrated.
Ø Possibility of powerful emotional buying motive is seen in the advertised product.
Ø Favourable managerial personnel personal and company policies.
Ø Non-Exaggeration of facts in product advertisement.
Ø Effective research work conducted for a particular product to be advertised.
An Ideal Consumer Feeling - Response to an Effective Advertisement- In order to ensure that the advertisements reach the target consumers in a most effective way and budgets right response from them, it has to be ensuring that such advertisements are presented in the right way. The following steps on the part of the consumer may ensure that the advertisements are on the right track.
- Getting attracted towards the advertisements.
- Listening and observing the contents of the advertisements in full.
- Continuous watching of the same over a period.
- Comparing the advertisements of similar products.
- Learning more about the product, the producer and the advertiser
- Making a trial purchase as follow up activity.
- Using the product as per the instructions.
- Assessing the level of utility of the product individually.
- Ascertaining the level of utility derived with other similar consumers.
- Comparing the level of utility of the product with similar products.
Effective Advertisement and Consumer Attitude- The following model exemplifies the attitude or response of a consumer to an advertisement and a glance through the following pictorial presentation would simplify our understanding of the advertisement's effects on thinking response and it also magnifies the peripheral and associative effect of an advertisement.
A Model of the Feeling - Response to Advertisement
Decreases amount of total
Raises product attribute Increases ratio of positive to
Transform Use Experience Increase Positive product
Advertisement Increases Attitude toward
- Evoked the Advertisement
Increase Evaluation of
A rather simple explanation of how a feeling - response advertisement works is that people like it or dislike it is an advertisement, and this attitude gets transformed to or associated with the product in the advertisement. There is thus the potential for a direct casual link between the attitude towards an advertisement and the attitude and behaviour towards a product. As noted in the diagram, feelings engendered by an advertisement can create or influence an attitude towards the advertisement directly, as well as indirectly, through assessments of the quality of the advertisement's exceptional characteristics. In fact, some researchers believe that attitude to the advertisement really has two different components; an affective one, reflecting the direct effect of the feelings evoked by the advertisement, and a second more cognitive one, reflecting how well is the advertisement made and how useful is the advertisement.
It is important, in understanding how an advertisement ultimately affects consumer attitude, to see what kind of attitude people develop toward the advertisement itself. if the way the advertisement is made is evaluated favourably, then the advertisement should elicit a favourable attitude towards itself and vice-versa. In respect of the viewers of the advertisement, how far does it influence them? The customers are to depend on the advertisements, only till he gets the product. After buying and using the product for the first time, comes the response to the advertisement. This can be in three different levels viz.
At the first level, when the consumers are fully satisfied, they will respond favourably to use the product continuously, subject to the price and the availability of the product. Continuous advertisement in various media further influences the listeners to build up a positive attitude towards the product.
The next level is the stage of getting dis-satisfaction by the consumers on the use of the product, on persuasion by the advertisement. This will lead to consumer resistance to the product. The dissatisfaction at this state means that the quality or the contents of the utility value of the product might not have reached the height expectations created by the advertisement. If the product or service at this stage is able to satisfy at least a section of the people, then it can service higher and thus will serve as forbidding factor.
The third situations leads to a stage, when the viewers understanding that the advertisement misguides them or giving a wrong information deliberately. Under this situation the viewer loses confidence on the advertiser, producer and the seller. This leads to a negative attitude on the marketing of the products of the company in general. The defects are to be brought to the knowledge of the producer to give a chance for him to correct the mistakes, if it is so. When there is no proper response for this complaint, then it leads to earning discredit from the customers.
Conclusion- Advertisement, the foregoing discussion show, is a sharp double edged weapon. When the claims of an advertisement correspond with the features of a product purchased as a consequence of such advertisement, the advertisement is bound to create a positive attitude among the consumers in the long run. On the other hand, when the features of the product purchased do not corroborate the claims made in advertisement, those advertisements are sure to create a negative attitude among the consumers. It is therefore essentials that an advertisement aims to create faith and goodwill in the minds of consumer about the product featured by conforming to the core principles of believability, uniqueness, reputation and reasonable claims.
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