Every organism is born within some kind of needs. Each and every activity done in the life to fulfil the needs for its satisfaction is not without motivation. Motivation is the process by which an organism is stimulated to do any activity. But in the field of psychology, this word is used in two forms of process and product of the process. In the form of process, it is used in such a psycho-physiological process which generate the emotional and conative energy in organism and stimulate him to do the specific activity while in the manner of product, it is used in the form of that energy or power which is originated by emotional perplexity and motivate him to do the specific activity.
Motivation is referred in the dictionary in many ways such as- desire, need, motive, goal, aspiration, wish, drive, aim, ambition, wants, striving etc. Their meaning does not maintain uniformity. Conclusively, it can define as a process by which an organism is inspired, goaded or coaxed to do something. Motivation encircles many aspects of behaviour which involve the individual to achieve his pre-determined goal. Thus, motivation is purposive, without the presence of goal this process can not start. The word "Motivation" has been derived from the Latin word "Movex" or the "Motum" which signifies to move, motor, motion or to put into action etc. as the etymological meanings. Therefore, motivation is a force that compels an individual to act or behave in a particular direction and manner. According to Woodsworth, "Motivation is the activity in progress". F.J Mcdonald defines motivation very aptly as, "motivation is a change of a power structure in a human being which is related to stimulus and reaching a goal". He emphasises three dimensions of motivation such as - energy, inspiration and desire. Maslow has advanced the theory of hierarchy of needs ranging from basic physiological to self-actualization needs. According to H.W. Bernard, motivation is involved in the stimulation of action towards particular objectives. Thus, motivation refers to definite set of mind of the learner which inspires him to reach his goal.
In educational psychology, motivation is both fascinating and frustraiting. It is fascinating because all the organisms are engaged in something while it is frustraiting because at times when we wonder about our own motive. Motivation is the stimulation to act toward a particular objective when previously there was little or no attraction to that goal. There are two approaches for motivation such as - practical and mental hygiene approach. Practical approaches including praise, pinning the good papers on board, visit, drama, name on honour roll etc. is no satisfactory means of testing the relative merits. Through mental hygiene approach, motivation should stem from fundamental needs of learners. There should attack the cause not the symptom. Self chosen motivations are better than those which are imposed.
In fact, motivation is an individual phenomenon. What is true for one learner, may not suit the other one in the same or other learning situation. So, continuous emphasis is being given on experiments and researches in the field of motivational psychology and pedagogy. The following theories given by different psychologists may be named general theories of motivation.
Behaviouristics Theories of Motivation- These theories are propounded by Thorndike, Hull, Miller, Mowrer, and Skinner in which motivation are largely governed by the principles of reinforcement. All human behaviours are the result of some responses towards stimulus. Walia had concluded that all behaviours are based on needs and drives.
Physiological Theories of Motivation- The profounders of these theories of motivation are William James, Rutherford, Zangueill, Lashley, Kretchmer and Sheldon, Hebb and Steller, Morgan and Beach who believe that some stimuli and motivation remains at the root of these behaviour.
Psycho-Analytic Theories of Motivation- According to Freud, Jung and Adler, the human behaviour is motivated and governed by semiconscious and unconscious will of human being who is motivated to work on those activities which are pleasure giving.
Cognitive Theories of Motivation- These theories are based on an understanding and anticipation of events. Walia describes that cognitive theories think of choices by persons among alternative courses of action as depending upon the relative strength of the forces acting on the individual.
Recent Trends of Theories Related To Motivation- Hebb, Stellar, Mowrer and Kluckohn are working to develop a single comprehensive theory of motivation. Steller (1954) proposed that amount of motivated behaviour is a function of the level of neural activity. Hebb (1958) explains reasonable assumptions about the operation of nervous system. Mowrer and Kluckhohn (1960) believe that all behaviour stems from drives which are produced by biological needs.
There are number of motives in our personal and social life which are responsible for motivating our behaviour. These motives can be broadly classified into two categories-primary and secondary motives, Primary or intrinsic or natural motives include personal, physiological and innate motives such as hunger, thrust, rest, steal, love, sex, ejection of waste from body etc. while secondary or extrinsic or artificial motives consist of social, psychological and acquired motives such as safety, protection, demonstration, curiosity, knowledge, self-respect, general etc. Motivation develops in an organism either by intrinsic or extrinsic motives but its nature is internal. It develops in a organism in the form of internal energy or force which excites and compels him to achieve the specific goal.
Attain Aim or Adjustment
Motivation influences the both, learning process and result. In fact, motivation is very important from the educational view point. Their use is essential for motivating learning, developing healthy aptitude and effect for desirable behavioral change. In learning the factors which influence motivation, encouragement has the special significance in the form of admiration and criticism. Awareness directly influences development and educational achievements of the students. Awareness is influenced indirectly, by attention, interest and rate. Aspiration is produced among the students from clarity of objectives, child's ability, capacity and continuous knowledge of progress. The use of punishment is most effective in case of indiscipline or committing an unsocial behaviour at proper time and in a proper measure. Needs are considered to be the mother of inventions. So, it is the duty of the teacher of makes the student to feel the need of subject matter and keep in emotional state of the child's mind. When the student establishes emotional relationship with knowledge, he can easily get motivation. Students should be acquainted with their progress from time to time, so that the students become active and motivated to gain more and more knowledge. The teacher can motivate the students for new knowledge by organising competition through individual or collective basis. Besides these, school environment, debates, councils, interest, habits are some other factors influencing motivation.
Techniques of Motivation - We know learning is the natal tendency of man but reaching in the school of the students shows that they are motivated to learn, how much? it is another thing. On the back of their motivation, there may be one or two or more motives. Motivation is such a strong medium by which the desire of the learner to learn can be made strong. It's use creates among the students such an internal power by which they are motivated toward learning by themselves with interest, attention and encouragement. Thus, motivation is the golden road for learning. The highest goal of learning is procurement of maximum achievement which depends upon the combination of ability and motivation. A motivated student learns more easily and more than his capacity. It is essential epitomizely to analyse the techniques of enhancing the learner's motivation which are as follows:
Reward and Punishment- Reward is the best motive to make the students expert. It brings about satisfaction among the students and increases their moral through which they are motivated to learn and makes them the master of the skills. Punishment is an opposite technique to motivate the students in the direction of desirable behavior. The students try to change their behaviour to save themselves from the punishment. But reward and punishment both should be given vigilantly.
Praise and Reproof- The excellent work and proper behaviour of the students should be praised by the teacher by which they will be encouraged and their will power enhances. The technique of reproof of wrong work is most effective and useful for bright, medium and for poor students. The technique of praise and reproof motivate the students to perform the desirable activity again and again and as a result they develop more interest in that activity.
Success and Failure- Success develops the satisfaction and self-confidence among learners because if they get the knowledge of success in the very beginning, they may proceed forward in their work very enthusiastically. On the other hand, failure function motivates the learners to accept a challenge and get force and reinforcement for their work. If the learner is discouraged by his failure the teacher should make such effort that the learner may succeed.
Competition and Co-operation- Sometimes rivalry based competition and cooperation on the level of collective and individual work is the best motive. It creats the spirit of healthy competition with the cooperation of others and develops the feelings of struggle and vigour among the learners. The spirit of giving and taking cooperation frees the learner from tension and also encourage him ready and curious for learning and group work.
Novelty- Within the curriculum, the teacher should create the interest and curiosity about the subject matter among the students using the various and new teaching methods and also changing the techniques of presentation of contents. This technique of motivation makes the students ready, spontaneous and energetic for learning and teaching activities and they are also curious and concentrate their attention to the subject matter. Thus, novelty brings more momentum in the process of learning.
Interest- is the most important technique of motivation to attract the learner’s attention because by nature students are curious to know everything they come across. The teacher should have patience to eradicate the various problems coming in the subject matter. Teaching&learning should not be exclusively book-oriented. Multidimenational activities like writing, singing, playing and acting with the help of audio-visual aids should accompany with them. Thus, attention is fixed and interest should be around in the direction of learning among the students.
Self Importance- Every individual awares of his self-respect and he does not allow his personality to be run down before others. If, anything hampers his respect then his mental stability becomes imbalanced. The teacher should take necessary steps to secure this in the students. If the students feel secured of his own-self, he is motivated to learn better in order to maintain the standard of his personality.
Besides the above mentioned techniques of motivation, there are some more other techniques to motivate the learning such as-to make the class environment lively and interesting. The aptitude of the students should be changed through the desire and level of aspiration and they may be motivated for high level of learning. The teacher should be acquainted with the student's progress with the help of learning curves and examination-results. In additions to these, other techniques are games, collective work, participation in social work, knowledge of needs, teacher's behavior etc. which can be used to motivate the students for learning.
In the end it may be concluded that motivation is one of the strongest means of learning. The teacher can use different types of means to take the students toward the goal and in this way he can bring the desirable change in their behaviour. But whatever means of motivation he is using, he must keep in his mind of their age, maturity, mental state, subject matter, goal, nature of skills and their environment. It is must for him to motivate them to learn in the classroom. It is an art itself, the teacher should be expert in this art.
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Smt. Navinta Rani
Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute
Sikri Kalan, Modinagar, GZB