Thursday, 1 April 2010


Anuradha Sharma
Lecturer, Dev Education College, Barhan, Agra

Educationists and Psychologists today agree that every child is born with certain inherent abilities & personalities which vary from Individual to Individual and distinguish one child from to another. Personality has received special attention from psycholigists & educationists in all ages. History of Personality assessment is as old as man on the earth. a human being lives in social & cultural Surroundings where he is required to make constant adjustment to surroundings. In primitive age people informally attempted to test the personality of their followings with the help of crude methods. Mostly involving the use of physical strength. Cave men had to do it for working out ways of survival. There was no formalized & standardized technique of personality assessment in those days.
Personality is a kinesthetic organization of internal and external traits. The definitions of woodworth, Marwics, Stagner and Karwasky, Barren, Bowden, Deschil are important, but the definition of Allport is very popular. According to it, “personality is the dynamic organization with in the individual psycho-physical processes that determine his unique adjustment to his environment.”
The term “Mentally Challenged” is often misunderstood and seen as derogatory. Some think that retardation is diagnosed only on the basis of below-normal intelligence (IQ),and that retarded persons are unable of learn or to care for themselves. Actually in order to be diagnosed as Mentally Challenged, the person has to have both significantly low IQ and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life. However, most children who are Challenged can learn a great deal, and as adults can lead at least partials independent lives. Most importantly, they can enjoy their lives just as every else.
Children who do not function according to age- appropriate expectations in the areas of emotional, cognitive, communicative, perceptual motor, physical or social development to an extent that they require special adaptations, program adjustments and related services on a regular basis in order to function in an adaptive manner. Examples of a child with a disability include a child who has:
  I.            A developmental delay.
II.            A neurologically – based condition, such as Mentally Challenged, cerebral palsy, autism, epilepsy or other condition closely related to Mentally Challenged or requiring special services similar to those required by Mentally challenged Children.
III.            Mentally Challenged associated with socio-cultural or psycho-social disadvantaged.
IV.            A genetic disorder or physiological condition usually associated with Mentally Challenged.
V.            Problems of social or emotional adjustment.
When a child has a hearing loss during the developmental years, all areas of development can be affected significantly. A hearing loss limits ease of acquisition of comunication system, which further influences development of inteions with others, the ability to make sense out of the world, and ease of acquiring academic skills. Early identification of a hearing loss is critical to a child’s academic and emotional adjustment.1
There are three major types of hearing losses. The first is called a conductive loss. This occurs when somethings goes wrong with the outer or middle ear, impeding sound waves from being couducted or carried to the inner ear. The second type is referred to as a central auditory procession disorder because, although there is no specific damage to the ear itself, the neural system involved in understanding what is heard is impaired. Children with central auditory processing disorder ma have normal hearing as measured by an audiometer (device used to test hearing levels), but they often have difficulty understanding what they hear. A child may also have a combination of these forms of hearing loss (Easterbooks & Baker- Hawkins, 1994)
Rorschach Ink-Blot Test is a type of projective techniques.
According to Ijenik, (1972)
“Projective techniques are a group of psychological techniques and procedures that claim to disclose the basic (Underlying, Hidden) personality structure and motivations of a subject by having him organize, respond to, or deal with materials or stimuli in a free, unlimited way without reference to a preconceived system of correct or incorrect answers.” Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorchach (1882-1922) was the developer of the inkblot personality test commonly known as the Rorschach test. The ten inkblot cards designed by Rorschach in the early twentieth Century have continued to be used by mental health professionals as one of the standard means of compiling a subject’s personality profile.
v  An assessment of personality profile of Mentally challenged through Rorschach Ink-Blot Test
They have extroversive personality. Extrovert is stereotype of well adjusted; socially skilled these persons are highly responsive to their environment. They are easily stimulated; they are reactive rather than striving. They are creative in their relationship to objects and people external to them and strive towards goals that they have staked out in the external world.
They have neither simple acknowledgement of impulse nor is the imaginable ability either in the sense of long range foresight or escapist fantasy.
They are not acted out, but rather that the ego has developed so little that the person may act irresponsibly without ego participation.
They have a low level of interest in minutiae of experience.
They show degree of incapability of differentiation might be expected with tow mental age.
They have severe defect in personality organization as with seriously psychopathic personalities.
They control over impulsive expression of emotionally.
v  An assessment of personality profile of Hearing Impaired Children through Rorschach Ink-Blot Test
They have introversive personality. Introvert   withdrawn, shy, socially inept and apt to overindulge in fantasy to the extent of being schizoid or at least neurotic. They have a imaginable function, either in terms of fantasy, long range goals or acknowledged impulses, while their responsiveness to and involvement with the outer world are reduced. They tend to restructure the world in terms of their own values and needs. They read much of their own interpretation into reality. They are self sufficient.
The goals of these people have a more personal, developmental significance.
Hearing Impaired Children have impulse life is subordinated of the value system of the individual.
They have tension and inner conflict, excessive control and lack of spontaneity.
They are able to utilize their inner resource to give themselves stability and control. They feel relatively little need for approval and affection. They feel rejection experiences which are serious enough to wrap their personality development. They are not sufficiently differentiated in their intellectual function.
i.                        Similar Rorschachian Traits
Mentally Challenged and Hearing Impaired Children both have rejection experiences are serious enough to wrap their personality development.
Mentally Challenged and Hearing Impaired Children both lack recognition of every day problems and facts.
Both of the Children suffer from “Natural Constriction” or “Natural Limitation.”
Mentally Challenged and Hearing Impaired both are not sufficiently differentiated in their intellectual function.
Mentally Challenged have low degree of interest in seeking relationships between the separate facts of experience and achieving an organized view of the world same as Hearing Impaired Children.
ii.                        Dissimilar Rorschachian Traits
Hearing Impaired Children has impulse life but Mentally Challenged Children have neither simple acknowledgement of impulse nor is imaginable ability.
Hearing Impaired Children feel relatively little need for approval and affection but Mentally Challenged Children have responsiveness to outside stimulation.
Mentally Challenged Children have control over impulsive expression of emotionally on the other hand the Hearing Impaired Children have weak control over emotionally.
Hearing Impaired Children have not only a differentiated interest in factual things, but also insecurity but Mentally Challenged Children have a low level of interest in the minutiae of experience.
Mentally Challenged Children are extrovert person and Hearing Impaired Children are introvert person.
Hearing impaired and Mentally Challenged Children have some indentical personality patterns and have some different which can be easily observe through table.
In drawing the conclusion, it can be said that their personality has serious maladjustment problems and their rejection experience wrapped their personality which tends to act them in antisocial behaviour poor acceptance, insight and understanding about social norms. They show an uncontrolled reactivity environment impact and pathological zymology. They all are low education. They are all low achiever.
Ø  The personality plays a vital role in the development.
Ø  Every individual has different personality
Ø  The personality of Hearing Impaired and mentally Challenged Children has a significant difference.
Ø  Mentally challenged and Hearing impaired Children both have lack recognition of every day problems.
Ø  There is a significant need of improvement in condition of exceptional children.
Ø  Almost all the children have some anxiety due to frustration of the need for affection, every individual is making an effort to understand and tolerate the anxiety.
1.        Allen R.M. Introduction  to : Subjective Definitions in test situation and their effect on Test performance” Psychiatry 1945 8, 419-449 pg.
2.        Bruno klopfer & Helen H. Davidson: “The Rorschach Technique An Introductory Manual pg. 73, 74, 75, 77
3.        Hibbard, S. : “Acritique of Lilienfeld et,’s The Scientific status of Projective Techniques, Journal of Personality Assessment V. 80, pp. 260-271, 2003”
4.        Lillenfeld, S.O., Wood, J.M., Garb,: “ The scientific status of projective techniques, v.1, pp. 27-66, 2000.”
5.        Projection and Its Relation To Character Attitudes and Creativity in the Kinesthetic Responses,” Psychiatry, 1950, 13, 69-100.

6.        Research in Education P-30, James H.Mc. Millan& Sally Schumacher