Tuesday, 1 January 2013

DEVELOPING CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND CURE OF TERRORISM IN INDIA: NEED OF RE-GENERATION


Divya Tripathi


            Terrorism means the policy of striking terror in the minds of the people by violent methods to achieve some ends: Terrorism has become a common burning problem in all the nations and has become an obstacle in the path of peace, development and security. There is no every end or gap in the worst things caused by terrorism. The heightened consciousness of the menace of terrorism of the past decade has led to a considerable increase in the literature on this subject. This research paper in the light of existing literature highlights the genesis and diabolic effects of terrorism. The paper has also given a glimpse of Indian terrorism and has suggested few remedies which should be implemented in order to have an annihilation of this burring problem.

Keywords: Terrorism, Fatalities, Killings, Economic consequence etc.
Rationality of the Study
            Terrorism as a global issue requires multidisciplinary approach. Individual disciplines such as psychology, sociology, political science, international relations and religious studies can all make important contributions. Terrorism in India has also been receiving closer attention from economists, and it is from this perspective the paper will try to answer some of the important questions which are as: What is the Genesis of terrorism? What are its kinds? What causes it? What are the consequences? What are the ways to mitigate it? 1
            Terrorism at the international level and deliberate use of means capable of producing a common danger" to commit "an act imperiling life, physical integrity or human health or threatening to destroy substantial property." Prior to the establishment of the UN, a Convention for the Prevention of Terrorism was concluded in Geneva in 1937.2 However the word "terrorism" has been derived from French word "terrorisme" which is based on the Latin verb terrere (to cause to tremble). Terrorism is defined in the U.S. by the code of Federal Bureau of Investigation as "the unlawful use of force and violence against person or property to intimidate coerce a government, the civilian population or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." In 2004, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 condemned terrorist acts as: "criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international Organization to do or to abstain from doing any act, which constitute offences within the scope of 'and as defined in the international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, are under no circumstances justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature".
                Terrorism is a strategy and violence has used to produce certain effects in a group of people so as to attain some political end or ends. One of the effects of such a strategy is fear, however, there can be and usually are, other effects".3 "Terrorism is the use of violence in order to induce a state of fear and submission in the victim".4 "Terrorists are people who use acts of terror to achieve their political objectives".5 It is actual use or threat of use of violence by a group to achieve some political goals. It is usually used against a government, but sometimes another group, class of party can also be its target. "Terrorism can be best defined by the quality of acts and not by the perpetrators or the nature of their causes".6 Though generally the terrorists use violence against a government and its property very often the civilians become the .immediate victims of terrorist acts.
                "Terrorism is the use of violence politically as a means of pressuring a government and/or society into accepting a radical political or social change".7 It is a kind of violence exercised for political goals outside all normal political relationships. No moral rules or restraints regulate the people who practice terrorism. Terrorists do not recognizing any rules or conventions of welfare. It can be said that they give importance not to means but to the ends. Terrorism is a special form of clandestine undeclared and unconventional warfare waged against the existing system for some radical change.
                Thus, one can say that terrorism is "criminal acts directed against the state or intended to create a State of terror in the minds of particular persons or group of persons or the general public, thus it is the policy of striking terror in the minds of the people by violent methods to achieve some ends. It is a law of the jungle to use muscle power and force to get things done. It is a barbarian act. Terrorism has now become an international phenomenon. There are terrorists in developed and advanced countries as well as developing countries like India. There has been exploitation of the weak and the poor for centuries by the rich and the powerful.
Kinds of Terrorism & Terrorist Groups- A large number of terrorist groups surfaced and became active over the past few decades. Though these groups had some common characteristics, they have different motives and 'Objectives.8 Categorization of the word terrorism and terrorist activity in this manner is important in assisting us to determine the nature of the threat and the response which the threat demands. There are two kinds of Terrorism, one is political terrorism and the other is criminal terrorism. In the former Terrorism seeks to attain some political objective by creating panic on a large scale. This type of terrorism can be disastrous as, these terrorists are well trained for the task; they are very well organized, and also have a solid back up support of some political big wig. In this, senseless violence is indulged in, just to create a panic among the people and to create problems for the Government. Organizations who harbor and train terrorists indulge in hijacking airplanes, shooting innocent people, using of bombs to scare the public, and the spreading of rumors are the main modus operand! of these political terrorists. Besides these political terrorists, there is another brand of terrorists termed as, criminal terrorists. Their work is chiefly to kidnap for ransom.
The contemporary categories of terrorist groups are:
   • Issue.   • Ideological   •Exile    •State and State-Sponsored
                A more assessment of the terrorist tactics and threat may be grouped as Traditional Terrorism and New Terrorism.
Traditional Terrorism- The major class in this group of terrorism is orthodox in nature. Some of them are as below:
• Assassination:  •Bombing • Facility Attack: •             Maiming: •Sabotage: • Kidnapping: • Hijacking: •      Threats: • Assault: •                 Armed Attack:
New Terrorism- A major group in the class of new terrorism is chemical, biological  and radiological nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism can reach an unprecedented level of destruction.9
• Chemical Terrorism:  •     Biological Terrorism:  •       Radiological Terrorism:
• Nuclear Terrorism:  • Cyber Terrorism:
                Some of the weapons, basically computer software programs, at the disposal of cyber terrorists are:
•              Logic bombs which are programmed to destroy or rewrite the target's data on command,
•              Sniffers which monitor communications and transactions,
•              Computer worms which use up disc space by replicating themselves until the computer's memory is gone.
•              HERF guns which shoot high-energy radio signals at an electronic target and knock that out.
                Several terrorists groups like the Peruvian Tupac Amarus, the Irish Sinn Fein, the Turkish Dead Soul extremists and the Kashmiri militants have their own internet websites with which they coordinate their cross-border activities.10
•              Agricultural Terrorism:     • Eco-Terrorism:
Causes of Terrorism
                There are various causational factors of terrorism; some of the important factors are an follows:
·                     Poverty and economic disadvantage, globalization.
·                     Corruption.     Non-Democracy
·                     Modernization, Social Facilitation and Revolutionary Ideologies.
·                     Religion & Social or Domain.
·                     Ethnicity nationalism/Separatism.
                Beside above mentioned causes there are other factors responsible for terrorism such as, unemployment and ignorance, Passion for power, Feeling of social insecurity, Economic offences, corruption, black-marketing and social and racial discriminations.
                We are also still deft to thike of alternative trajectories for a more sustainable, origins & native pattern of nationalism. Could these nationalism one-route through native system where everything states from infinite & descends to microbe?
Consequences of terrorism- One of the important consequences of terrorism is risk of loss of life of people which is priceless however there are various ways in which terrorism may have economic consequences. Some of the important micro and macro economic consequences are as below:
Diversion of F.D.I- Could we have strategic diversion vis-a-vis. FDI? Could we endeavour for FDI strategy & not for capital resources dev? Should we develop to become large & not to become small? would we sustain an dimitaps?
                Terrorism can impose costs on a targeted country through a number of avenues. Terrorist incidents have economic consequences by diverting foreign direct investment (FDI), destroying infrastructure, redirecting public investment funds to security, or limiting trade. If a developing country loses enough] FDI, which is an important source of savings, then it may also experience reduced economic growth. Just as capital may take flight from a country plagued by a civil war a sufficiently intense terrorist campaign may greatly reduce capital inflows.11 Terrorism, like civil conflicts, may cause spillover costs among neighboring countries as a terrorist campaign in a neighbor dissuades capital inflows, or a regional multiplier causes lost economic activity in the terrorism-ridden country to resonate throughout the region.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)- The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country is regarded as the most important indicator of the "well-being" of an economy. The GDP relates to the size of the economy of a particular geographic area in a certain time interval, usually a year. Terrorism is expected to influence the GDP. Actual attacks as well as the threat of such attacks create instability in the economic, political and personal sphere, negatively affecting growth rates and the GDP For example; personal insecurity as a consequence of terrorism may affect consumption and investment behavior and thus the GDP. In general, GDP has proven to be sensitive to the number of terrorist casualties. The affected GDP in turn may inflict political instability in case governmental counterterrorism measures turn out to be insufficient. We need to add a GDP-race to the economic reforms?
Public Spending- "Public spending", also referred to as "Government Spending" or "Government purchases", represents another macroeconomic factor upon which terrorist attacks are expected to have a noticeable effect. Public spending includes expenditures by the government on any good or service. After terrorist attacks, governments may feel forced to increase spending on security measures to react on both the growing public insecurity and future attacks. The shift from government spending on economically productive sectors to less productive security measures may have a negative effect on the economic growth and inflation rates.
Decline in certain Industries- Some of the industries and sectors will be more affected by terrorism than others. Tourism, travel, insurance etc will probably experience reduced demand, or there will be a change in the composition of demand away from activities that are seen as likely terrorist targets towards others that are not. Tourism industry will get severe jolt because of high risk of loss of life involved it and as result revenue of the nation or a state will significantly fall. Air travel will be adversely affected because of the additional risks involved in it. The insurance industry will also be affected. Not only will there be the claims resulting from terrorist attacks, but an increase in terrorism, or the perceived threat of terrorism, will increase actuarial risk and will increase the demand for insurance. An increase in the cost of insurance and, in relation to this, security, will increase production costs. As a result, firms will experience a leftward shift in their supply curves, particularly where security represents an important part of their costs. It is also possible indention have been limited to curbing the expenditure on risk sector & selling of public sector units. The implicit properties have been shifting from demand. Small scale & thing sector to others thank are less welfare inversing that increased stockpiling of some primary products and raw materials will drive up their price shifting supply curves further to the left.
Impact on trade flows and technological diffusion- For countries that are situated close to the technological frontier, innovation and the development of new technologies is one of the prime drivers of economic growth for advanced industrial countries. However, for countries that are situated far away on the technological frontier, foreign direct investment and trade are the main mechanisms for transmitting leading edge technologies and business practices among countries. The concern here is that the war on terrorism would adversely impact trade flows, as costlier airfreight and longer processing times at customs increase the cost of trade. While there is little evidence so far to suggest that cross-border investment flows globally have slowed down in the wake of global terrorism, if the reduction in 'investment flows becomes significant, it could slow down the diffusion of technology and impede technological advancement as well as economic growth. Nonetheless, as national efforts are focused on fighting terrorism, it will lead to greater international collaboration on the sharing of technological developments.12
Slower pace of globalization- Historically, times of war and economic distress increase the likelihood that countries will pull away from market economies. If the United States or any other country is hit by more big terrorist attacks, the danger is that countries may retreat from globalization, and guide an increasing share of technological development to the needs of national security. In fact, in the current environment, many countries may be comfortable to sacrifice some long-term growth in exchange for more military and economic security. Another area where countries are searching for a new balance is the degree of openness between the economy and the rest of the world. While free trade and open immigration were widely practiced by countries in the 1990s, the concerns over the infiltration of terrorist cell groups have led countries to implement more stringent immigration policies and tighter border controls. In last Globlis. has been clubbed with in rearing unemployed & not been labour denary. Relatively, Higher ways other are scratetting a living somehow an sullying in increasing mass in equality & party.
Terrorism in India- Terrorism in India should be looked upon as an integral part of our colonial legacy. The British followed the policy of 'divide and rule' and ultimately divided the subcontinent into two nations, i.e India & Pakistan which later grew into three after the independence of Bangladesh. Post-independence and post-partition violence and terrorism was unprecedented. This partition on the basis of religion, faith and community has sown seeds of hatred, violence, terrorism, separatism and communal divide and will continue growing and flowering for a long time. The rise of extremism arid terrorism in our north-eastern states of Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur, and Assam, etc is also part of our colonial legacy. Besides socio-political and economic aspects, psychological, emotional and religious aspects are also involved in the problem. All these create strong feelings and extremism. The unprecedented spate of terrorism in the recent past in Punjab which claims for formation of Khalistan can be understood and appreciated only in this background. Terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir Is also a big problem currently faced by India. Widespread poverty, unemployment, neglect of youth, peasants and working class and emotional alienation are some of the main reasons of extremism in the province. The hostile forces across our borders are also helping it a lot.13
                The Indian states are worst affected by terrorist incidents and fatalities. From the table 1 it is evident that over the period from 2006-2011, there were, 2849 terrorist incidents in India which resulted in 12710 deaths (the figure includes civilians, security personals and terrorists). Terrorism in India is primarily attributable to religious communities and Naxalite radical ovements. The regions with long term terrorist activities today are Jammu and Kashmir, Mumbai, Central India (Naxalism) and the Seven Sister States (independence and autonomy movements). From the table 1 total fatality due to terrorist and insurgent conflicts in the country continued their decline, registering a total of total 1074 deaths in 201 las against 1,902 deaths in 2010, and 2,232 in 2009, and a peak of 5,839 in 2001. As of 2011 at least 310 of the country's 636 Districts are currently afflicted by varying intensities of chronic activity, including subversion, by insurgent and terrorist groupings. 223 Districts across 20 States register Maoist activity; another 20 Districts in J&K are affected by Pakistan-backed Islamist separatist terrorism; and 67 Districts in six States in the Northeast are affected by numerous ethnicity based terrorist and insurgent movements. Despite enveloping uncertainty, unremitting miss governance and widespread public perceptions of insecurity, the reality of India's multiple terrorist and insurgent movements is that most of them are weakening. The worst and steadily worsening of conflicts in India is, without dispute, the Maoist insurgency, principally spearheaded by the monist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist), but including at least another 20 minor Left ing Extremist (LWE, also called Naxalite) factions. Naxalite-related fatalities, at 1,180 in 2010, now significantly outstrip the combined total of all other terrorist and insurgent movements in the country.14
Table 1.   Incidents and fatalities in India
Year
Number of Incidents
Number of fatalities
2006
164
2275
2007
154
2615
2008
515
2613
2009
671
2232
2010
647
1902
2011
553
1074
Total
2704
12711
Source: Calculated from GTD and SATP.
                However, table 2, clearly shows that total fatalities in India's Northeast has shown fluctuating trend since 2005 but has fell dramatically to 247 in 2011 from 322 in 2010, from 853 in 2009, and 1,051 in 2008. Table 3, reveals that Manipur and Assam has shown the most significant improvements in this long-troubled region, with fatalities dropping from 416 and 391, respectively, in 2009, to 138, 158 in 2010.
Table 2.    Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in India's Northeast
Year
Civilians
SFs
Terrorists
Total
2005
334
69
314
717
2006
232
92
313
637
2007
457
68
511
1036
2008
404
40
607
1051
2009
270
40
542
852
2010
77
22
223
322
2011
80
35
132
247
2012
17
9
35
61
Total
1854
366
2642
4862
Source: SAPT
                Table 3 depicts that total fatalities resulting from the Pakistan-backed terrorist campaigns in Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) remained at 183 in 2011, 375 in 2010, the same number as the preceding year, though this figure excludes the 111 persons killed (overwhelmingly in Police firing) in the terrorist and separatist-backed street violence which peaked through June-October 2010. Table 3. Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in India

State

Year

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Total

Arunachal Pradesh

0

21

2

9

0

41

73

Assam

174

437

373

391

158

95

1628

Jammu & Kashmir

1,116

111

541

375

375

183

3367

Manipur

285

408

492

416

138

65

1804

Meghalaya

24

18

12

5

20

29

108

Mizoram

2

8

5

1

0

1

17

Nagaland

92

108

145

18

3

15

381

Tripura

60

36

27

11

3

1

138

Others

1002

802

1008

1005

1205

602

644

Total

2775

2615

2605

2231

1902

1032

8160

Source: Calculated from SATP database.
                The broadly positive trends - with the exception of Maoist violence - do not, however, provide an accurate index to the quality of the state's responses over the intervening period. Indeed, in all spheres, it is a range of complex extraneous factors that has led to dramatic improvements, where these have been registered.
Measures to curb Terrorism- After visualizing the most demonic effects of terrorism every nation in the world unanimously comes to a decision i.e. complete eradication of the terrorism with its deep roots all over the world. For that the following are a few measures which should be implemented at the National and international level:-  Education, Fair political policies, Punishments, Inter-Agency communication and collaboration, Detection systems & Anti-terrorism acts.
Conclusion: Terrorism can deter valuable life and resources of nation and therefore inhibit peace, economic growth, and investments. There are various avenues through which terrorism could exert effects at the microeconomic, macroeconomic and global levels. Our research further provides that terrorism is more likely to hit the certain industries and sectors, comprising of tourism, air, insurance and financial markets. In general, terrorist incidents have a negative and significant impact on G.D.P of a nation. However, statistics on terrorism in India has shown declining trend over last few years. Policy designed to reduce terrorism has to be fit for purpose. Conventional measures designed to reduce crime may not, work effective in the case of terrorism. The emphasis needs to be placed on prevention that in turn relies on, intelligence-based operations and on alleviation of poverty, unemployment and injustice etc. At the same time, if terrorism is caused by feelings of relative deprivation and a lack of political voice, reducing terrorism depends on reducing poverty and income inequality and creating greater democracy in formerly autocratic countries. However, while such a broad policy direction is easy to delineate, the precise mechanisms through which it may be achieved are much more difficult to define.
References
1.        Arunbobu, 2007, Global Terrorism & Major Indian Legislations.; available from www.legalserviceindia.com/artides/anti_pota.htm; internet; accessed 27 February 2012.
2.        Singh Adithi. 2011, Terrorism in India available from http://www.legaIserviceindia.com/ articies/antLpota.html. Internet; accessed 25 February 2012.
3.        Jenkins, Brain, Internationa! Terrorism : A New Mode of Conflict, Crescent Publications, Los Angeles, 1975, p. 1 as quoted by Evans, Ernest, Calling a Truce to Terror, Green Wood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1979, p. 3.
4.        Qureshi, Saieem, "Political Violence in the South Asian Subcontinent" in Alexander, Yonah ed. Internationa! Terrorism, Prager Publishers, New York, p. 151.
5.        Sarkar, Bhaskar, Tackling Insurgency and Terrorism, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1998, p. 20.
6.        Jenkins, Brain M., "Statements about Terrorism", Annals of American Academy, Vol. 463, September, 1982, p. 12.
7.        Robertson, David, Dictionary of Politics (llnd Edition) Penguim Books, London, 1993, p. 458.
8.        D.P. Sharma, Countering Terrorism, (New Delhi: Lancers Books, 1992).
9.        Martha Crenshaw, "Terrorism and International Security", available from http://www.disastercenter.com/terror. html; Internet; accessed 27 February 2012.
10.     Narang, A.S., Prarnila Srivastava, "Terrorism - The Global Perspective'', Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, New Delhi, 2001.
11.     Enders, Walter and Todd Sandler (1996), "Terrorism and Foreign Direct Investment in Spain and Greece," Kyklos 49(3), 331-52.
12.     W.T.H. Koh/ Technological Forecasting & Soda! Change 74 (2007) 129-138 available from http://www: sciencedirect.com accessed on 26 February 2012.
13.     ShoreYourEssays.com, accessed on 28 February 2012. 22
14.     http://terriorism/lndia Fatalities South Asia Terrorism portal.mht accessed on 28 February 2012
15.     http://terrior ism/India Fatalities South Asia Terrorism portal, mht accessed on 28 February 2012.
16.     ShareYour Essays.com, accessed on 28 February, 2012.

Divya Tripathi

Research Scholar

Pol. Science, University of Allahabad