Tuesday, 1 January 2013

Government Private Disparity in two pioneering Secondary schools of Assam


Manju Chutia

Inequalities between Government and Private sectors are not new. They have always existed and in the present times it has become a vital problem of the society. Though the world has become a small village in this Era of Globalization this type of disparities still exist in our society. The present study has tried to trace out one of the important disparities in the field of School Education that is the government- private disparity between two pioneering schools of the state Assam, Cotton Collegiate Government Higher Secondary School and the Assam Jatiya Bidyalay. Present study considered these two secondary schools for a comparative study in some of the specific aspects like academic achievement of the students, Innovative practices, Infrastructural facilities and Provision for extra-curricular activities.

Keywords- Disparity, Government schools, Private schools, Academic achievement, innovative practices, extra-curricular activties

Introduction- Inequalities between Government and Private sectors are not new. They have always existed and in the present times it has become a vital problem of the society. Though the world has become a small village in this Era of Globalization this type of disparities still exist in our society. The present study has tried to trace out one of the important disparities in the field of School Education that is the government- private disparity between two pioneering schools of the state Assam, Cotton Collegiate Government Higher Secondary School and the Assam Jatiya Bidyalay. These two schools are considered as the pioneering schools as the government school is the first Assamese medium secondary school of the state which was established in 1834 and which has completed its 178 glorious years. On the other hand the Assam Jatiya Bidyalay is considered as the another pioneering school of the state which was established in the year1994 and which had opened the path for establishing quality private Assamese medium secondary schools in the state with very nominal fees from the students and give 100% results each year from the very beginning. After Assam Jatiya Bidyalay a number of private Assamese medium secondary schools were established though they are not maintaining the quality output.
In Assam the first modern school came into existence in 1834, with approval of the proposal of General Committee of public instruction, by the Govt. of India, to the establishment of an English school at Gauhati (Guwahati). And that is the Cotton Collegiate Government Higher Secondary School, though this is not the original name. Towards the end of the same year the school was started with an enrolment of fifty-eight which rose to one hundred and fifty in 1838.
At present in Assam there are six different types of secondary schools from the management of the schools point of view which are classified by the Board of Secondary Education Assam. These schools are-
   1. Government schools: The government schools are fully managed and maintained by the government.
2. Provincialised schools: Provincialised schools are not directly maintained and managed by the government, but receive maintenance grants from the government.
3. Recognized Non-Provincialised Public schools: This type of schools is recognized by the Board of Secondary Education Assam and the state government but they are not provincialised by the government of Assam.
4. Recognized Non-Provincialised Private schools: This type of schools is recognized by the Board of Secondary Education Assam but they do not get provincialization by the government as these schools are not established with the hope to get its provincialization.
5. Unrecognized Non-Provincialised Public schools: This type of schools is established by the public with a hope for its provincialization but they do not get recognition from SEBA. This type of public schools does not get any financial aid from the government.
6. Unrecognized Non-Provincialised Private schools: These schools are established by the private bodies which do not get recognition from the Board of Secondary Education, Assam and which do not get provincialization by the government of Assam. This type of schools are owned run and managed by the private bodies or the private agencies.
 Present study considered two secondary schools one is government school and the other is the recognised non-provincialised private school for a comparative study in some of the specific aspects like- academic achievement of the students, Innovative practices, Infrastructural facilities and Provision for Extra-curricular activities. One is government school and the other is the recognised non-provincialised private school.
Need and justification of the study- Present study has been justified on the ground that no such exploratory work has been done giving emphasis on government private disparity of the secondary schools especially these two pioneering schools of the state.
Statement of the problem- The present study is entitled as “Government Private disparity in two pioneering secondary schools of Assam” which provides the necessary information in the light of the justification given in this study.
Objectives
·         To make a comparative study between these two secondary schools in respect of the academic achievement of the students.
·         To make a comparative study between these two schools in respect of the innovative approaches adopted by the schools.
·         To make a comparative study between these two schools in respect of the infrastructural facility.
·         To make a comparative study between these two schools in respect of the extra-curricular activities.
Research Design:
Method used- For the present study Normative Survey method has been adopted.
Sample- The sample for the present study has been selected in two different strata. In the first strata two target schools were selected and in the second strata 400 students were selected randomly from the target schools. From each school 200 students were selected in order to collect data related to academic achievement of the students.
Tools used- Tools used for the present study were-
·         Data gathering schedule
·         Structured and unstructured Interviews
Statistical techniques used- For the quantitative analysis of the present study the statistical techniques used are-
Tables,   Graphical representations, Mean,    Standard Deviation
Delimitation of the study
                The study is delimited to-
  • Only two secondary schools of Guwahati are considered for the present study
  • Only two Assamese medium secondary schools are considered for the study
  • Only four aspects of these schools are considered for the study and these are- academic achievements, innovative approaches, infrastructural facilities and extra- curricular activities.
  • For academic achievement average pass percentage of the students in HSLC examination was taken as the index.
Analysis and discussions - Objective no 1 To make a comparative study between these two secondary schools in respect of the academic achievement of the students.
            For this objective the investigator collected the average pass percentage of the students in HSLC examination in five consecutive years from 2007 to 2011 from both the schools. From these two set of academic achievement scores mean and standard deviations were calculated separately which is presented in table-1.
Table-1
Mean and standard deviation of the academic achievement scores of the sample schools
Name of the schools
N
Academic achievement (%)
Cotton Collegiate HSS
200
78%
Assam Jatiya Bidyalay
200
100%
Total
400
89%

Figure-1
Pie diagram



Academic achievement of the two sample schools
            From Table-1 and Figure-1 it is observed that the academic achievement of the students in government school that is Cotton Collegiate HSS is found to be 78% and the private school it is 100%. Here it can be interpreted that the academic achievement of the students in the private school that is Assam Jatiya Bidyalay is found to be better than the government school that is Cotton Collegiate HSS.
Objective no. 2 To make a comparative study between these two schools in respect of the innovative approaches adopted by the schools.
            In order to serve the need of this study the investigator collected data from the respective schools with the help of the data gathering schedule and the interviews. The collected data for this objective is presented in Table-2.
Table-2
Innovative approaches adopted by the sample schools
Sl.
no.
Private School (AJB)
Government School (CCGHSS)

1.
Field work as the method of teaching the subjects like Social Science, History and Geography
No such provisions are there






2.
Compulsory laboratory classes each day for students from class IV to X in the subject General Science
Only the students of class VIII, IX and X use the laboratory which.


3.
Compulsory spoken English classes for students each day from class V to X.
No spoken English classes are there


4.
Special guest teachers for the students once in a month
No such provisions are there


5.
Out of total 36 sections (of 10 classes) 14 compulsory library classes in two libraries available in the school, Junior Library for class I-IV and Senior Library for class V-X
Single library is available but the quality and the use of this library is very poor


6.
Class teachers maintain Class Libraries in each class.
No such step is taken there


7.
Provision of ‘Student Teacher’ is available
No such provisions are there


8.
Provision for Audio-Visual classroom and specific teacher for that classroom is also appointed. Every day seven proxy classes take place in the Audio-Visual Classroom.
Not available


9.
Use of LCD projectors in classroom transaction
Not available


10.
Provision for ‘HOME VISIT’. Every year the respective class teacher is to take feedback of the student’s academic as well as other developments by visiting their houses. In class X before the Pre Board Examination and Board Examination, the group of respective subject teachers have to visit the students’ home twice.
No such provision is available


11.
“Abhigyan Shibir”, A constructive and ideal farewell ceremony for the HSLC appeared students. This is a two days camp for the students. It is organised in the school on the immediate Saturday and Sunday just after the completion of the HSLC examination. The students have to come to the school on Saturday afternoon and stay the Saturday night there in the school with some of the selected teacher. In the evening they organise a function and feast. Sunday morning they have to attend two counselling sessions, one is on career counselling and the other is on Physical and mental health. Specialists for these sessions are invited. In the Sunday afternoon final farewell meeting is organised where all the parent and the teachers are invited and the camp is concluded.
Not available


12.
Arrangements are made for continuous and comprehensive teachers’ training programs, orientation courses, refresher courses for the teachers.
In the school level no such provisions are made.


13.
For better administration of the school along with the Principal, two vice principals, administrative officer, academic officer, Departments for each subject is set with one Head of the Department with the tenure of 3 years. Total six departments are there- Assamese, English, Science and Mathematics, Social Science, Hindi, Extra-curricular subjects.
Principal and the vice- principal are the main authority of the school. Class teachers are given responsibility to some extent.

From table-2 it is observed that being a private so many innovative approaches are adopted in the school for better educational output of the school. Assam Jatiya Bidyalay is the lone school where such approaches are made. Guest teacher, well utilization of the proxy classes, regular spoken English classes, compulsion in use of laboratory and libraries, well equipped audio-visual classroom, use of LCD projectors, high standard teachers’ trainings and better administrative set up, these are the important approaches adopted by a private secondary school which result better academic outcome of the school. On the other hand the government school is following the same traditional methods of teaching and other approaches.
Objective no. 3 To make a comparative study between these two schools in respect of the infrastructural facility.
In order to serve this objective the investigator collected data and information from the respective schools and the same is presented in Table-3
Table-3
Infrastructural facility available in the sample schools
Sl.no
Private School (AJB)
Government School (CCGHSS)
1.
Well equipped classrooms
Simple classrooms are available
2.
Well equipped and hygienic toilet and washroom facilities
Toilet facility is not sufficient and hygienic
3.
Two rich Libraries. Both the libraries have well equipped furniture where 40 students can sit and read together
Single library is there but use of it is not regular and compulsory
4.
High standard laboratories (senior and junior laboratory)
Laboratory is available but not well equipped and rich
5.
Air-conditioned two numbers of Computer science laboratories
No Computers laboratory is there.
6.
Sufficient drinking water facilities
Not sufficient
7.
For nearly hundred teachers 5 teachers’ common rooms or the sitting rooms with well furnished furniture. Separate pairs of table chair and almira for each teacher.
Only two sitting rooms are there where the teachers are to share the big tables and some common almirahs are available
8.
Two separate Recreation rooms for the teachers one for male teachers and the other for the female
Not available
9
Well equipped Auditorium
Not available
10
Rich Teaching Learning Material (TLM) room where TLM for each subject are kept which are prepared by the respective subject teachers in some workshops organised in the school from time to time.
Not available
            From table-3 it is observed that in comparison to the Cotton Collegiate Government Higher Secondary School the private school is highly equipped and have a good infrastructural facilities.
Objective no. 3 To make a comparative study between these two schools in respect of the extra-curricular activities.
             To meet the need of this objective the investigator collected data and information from the respective schools with the help of the interviews and the data gathering schedule and the result is presented in Table-4.





Table-4
Provisions for extra-curricular activities in the sample schools.
S. n.
Private School (AJB)
Government School (CCGHSS)
1.
Separate department for Extra-curricular subjects is there with one head of the department and 36 subject teachers. Extra-curricular classes take place only on Saturday. And hence the teaching stuff for extra-curricular is appointed as part time basis, but the head of the department is the permanent teacher of the school. On Saturday no other classes take place. From class II onwards the students have to select any one of the extra-curricular subject and on each Saturday they have to attend that compulsory classes.

Not available
2.
Extra-curricular subjects available in the school are-Drawing and Fine Arts, Music, Bharat Natyam,  Satriya, Scout and Guide, Yoga, Tabla, Behela,
Not available
3.
In these extra-curricular subjects the students have to appear examinations under different institutes and universities where they get degrees and diplomas.
Not available
            School stage is the right time to explore the potentials of the students and this particular school is adopting one of the best ways to channelize their innate capacities. The private school is adopting such steps with their best possible capacities, where the government schools have better capacity to adopt such steps but not initializing and adopting.
Findings
  • The private school Assam Jatiya Bidyalay has a better academic performance than the government school that is Cotton Collegiate GHS School. Since the establishing year 1994 Assam Jaiya Bidyalay has been performing 100% pass percentage each year in HSLC examination.
  • Innovative approaches adopted by the private school is very appreciating where the government schools is lagging far behind.
  • In respect of the infrastructural facilities the private school if found to be better than that of the government school. The government school considered for the present study is fully managed and maintained by the state government yet it does not have rich infrastructure in comparison to the private school.
  • Provisions for extra-curricular education is available in the private school where in the government school such provision is not found
Suggestions
1)            Efforts should be made to improve the infrastructure facilities like library, laboratory equipments, and classrooms, teaching technology, teaching aids for academic and professional development of the teachers which results in better academic performance of the students.
2)            Necessary efforts from concerned authorities are required to introduce new schemes and modifications of the existing institutional plans and policies. To increase academic performance of the students it is very important to adopt innovative approaches in teaching and the other activities in the school. Like the private school provisions should be made in the government schools.
3)            Provisions should be made for extra-curricular activities in the government schools and it should be made compulsory.
4)            Arrangement to be made at the institutional level for job enrichment, job variation among the teachers in academic and related activities to break the monotony of work and to bring   innovation.
5)            Involvement of the teachers in various institutional and social work, recreational clubs, NSS, computer learning centre and centre of continuous  and distance education, where the teachers can spend their leisure time effectively, purposefully.
6)            There was a news in an Assamese News Channel “NEWS LIVE” on dated 7TH February 2012 about one Private Assamese medium secondary school that is Assam Jatiya Bidyalay, Noonmati, which is also one of the sample schools of the present study. The news was about an innovative approach in teaching by the Social Science teachers of the school. The Social Science department of the school organised a field study programme with the theme “NIJOK SINO AHA” (Lets Know Ourselves). It was a study on the tribes of Assam and their culture. They organised six different camps in tribal populated areas of Assam with six different groups of teachers and students (class eight students). They stayed there in the houses of the tribal people. The students involved in every activity of village people and tried to learn things practically. In this field work programme they gathered maximum primary data from nearly 15 tribes of Assam. After these camps all the experiences were shared in the whole school. So this was a unique step taken by one private school. This type of approaches will certainly help to uplift the academic environment of the schools.
7)            Both pre-service and in-service teachers’ training is necessary for quality education in secondary level. The teachers should be given in-service training and as far as possible it should be made compulsory and mandatory in the government schools.
8)            Except the pedagogical training which prepares teachers for effective classroom training, training in communication and management aspects of the school is quite unknown in our educational system. So the provisions should be made to organise training programs in communication and management of persons and training for professional growth of the teachers.
9)            As there is a common belief that all the students of Assamese medium secondary schools cannot speak English properly so it is very important to make arrangements for regular compulsory spoken classes in the Assamese medium schools.
10)        Like the college teachers the Short Term Teachers’ Training Programs, Orientation Programmes, Refreshers Courses should be introduced for academic as well as personal development of the secondary schools teachers.
11)        Group activities among the school teachers should be encouraged. Management of the school should be based on more scientific principle which lay emphasis on group dynamics.
Conclusions
Government-Private disparity in school education is obvious but it is very important to bridge the gap between these two in order to get quality education from the educational institutions where the future citizens of our country are built. It is expected that the findings and the suggestions of this study will be helpful to the concerned authorities and the policy makers to bring sustainable developments and improvements in the field of school education as a whole.
References
1. Agarwal, J.C.,  Educational Research, New Delhi: Arya Book Depot,1975  
2.Agarwal , J.C.  Development and Planning of Modern Education: Delhi, Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, 1995
3.Anderson, J., Durston. B.H. and Poole, M., Thesis and Assignment Writting, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited, 1970
4.Anand, S.P., School Management for Quality Education in 21st Century (1st edition): Bhubaneswar, Page-Setter Publication, 2000          
5.Asthana, Bipin, Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra-2.
6.Best, JW &Khan, JV Research in Education, New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India Ltd,1995
7.Buch, M.B. (Ed), A Survey of Research in Education. Baroda: Centre of Advanced Study in Education and Psychology, M.S. University of Baroda,1974
8.Buch, M.B. (Ed), Second Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NCERT, 1979
9.Buch, M.B.(Ed), 3rd Survey of Research in Education (1978-83), New Delhi, NCERT,1987
10.Buch, M.B. (Ed), Forth Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NCERT, 1992
11.Choube, S.P., Problems of Indian Education, Agra-2, Vinod Pustak Mahal.
12.Das, B. P., A Trend Analysis of Academic Progress among students in High School Leaving Certificate (HSLC) Examination under SEBA in Guwahati from 2000-2004, Dissertation, M.Ed., Gauhati University, 2005
13.Ferguson,G.A Statistical Analysis in Psychology&Education, NewYork, McGrawHill 1976
14.Garret,Henry,E, Statistic in Psychology &Education, Bombay: Vikils&Simsons Ltd, 1981
15.Gupta, S.P. ,Statistical Methods, New Delhi: Sultan Chand and Sons Publishers,1991
16.Hazarika, Mukut, Scholastic Achievement of the Students of Secondary Schools Under different types of management. Ph.D. Thesis. Dibrugarh University,1998
17.Kalita, Bhanita. A study on the Pupil’s Academic Achievement in Science and Arts Stream of Higher Secondary Course During the period 2003-2007 with special reference to the H.S. Schools of greater Guwahati area, Dissertation, M.Phil., Gauhati University, 2008
18.Koul,L, Methodology of Educational Research. New Delhi,Vikash Publ, Pvt. Ltd,1997
19.Nanda, S. K.  Indian Education and its Problem Today. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana,1991
20.Oliver, Paul, Writting Your Thesis, Vistaar Publication, New Delhi,2005
21.Panda, U.N. School Management, New Delhi, Ashish Publishing House,1988
22.Rao, &.,Reddy, R.S., Effective Teacher&Teaching, New Delhi, Commonwealth Publishers.
23.Sharma,R.N. Educational Administration, Management & Organisation, Surjeet Pub, 1994
Dr. Manju Chutia
Lecturer, Department of Foundation Education,

DIET, Nalbari, Assam